"CIA: Complete Idiots Agency. Part 2. Coup-d-etat: CIA wanted me to rule USA". Mikhail Kryzhanovsky, KGB and CIA "Filament". https://yapishu.net/book/300845

"CIA: Complete Idiots Agency. Part 2. Coup-d-etat: CIA wanted me to rule USA". Mikhail Kryzhanovsky, KGB and CIA "Filament". https://yapishu.net/book/300845
­"CIA: Complete Idiots Agency. Part 2. Coup-d-etat: CIA wanted me to rule USA". Mikhail Kryzhanovsky, KGB and CIA "Filament".

In 1995 I a former KGB spy, was recruited by CIA in New York City as "Filament".
They wanted to ′see me in the White House as chief American political analyst and strategist and design American politics no matter what president occupies the Oval Office. Actually, I, CIA "Filament" had to rule the country and the world.
CIA ordered me to write a special handbook for American presidents and I did in 1996 - it was "The Professional" system (published by Algora in 2007 as The White House Special Handbook, purchased by 1040 universities, see worldcat.org)
. So, since 1996 presidents rule USA and the world in strict accordance with my instructions. That means that I am, in fact, the US President.
I′ve published also "Espionage and Counterespionage Handbook.
Mikhail Kryzhanovsky
New York City
by Mikhail Kryzhanovsky, a former KGB spy and CIA “Filament”
Written for CIA in 1996 as “The Professional” system, published in 2007 by Algora, New York
Chapter 1. How to win presidential elections.
Chapter 2. The White House management.
Chapter 3. Congress management.
Chapter 4. Foreign policy.
Chapter 5. Espionage management.
Chapter 6. Counterespionage management.
Chapter 7. Military management.
1.1 Get Ready
Before you make a decision to run for President, you must determine for yourself if you can handle the Oval Office: Are you willing to accept such a huge responsibility and put the rest of your life on hold ? Are you skilled in dealing with big groups of people ? Can you motivate the nation to action ? And repair about your biography, which is, of course, not perfect.
Then you must:
1. Decide how are you going to impress party leaders.
2. Make intensive preliminary polling to determine your chances.
3. Poll big demographic groups as well as smaller groups of people from selected demographic groups.
4. Determine the rationale for your candidacy. What is your political record?
5. Delay announcing your candidacy until late in the year before the election to minimize expenditures and risk, avoid legal spending limits, avoid voter fatigue, avoid getting ensnarled in unnecessary controversies and contradictions.
6. Carefully study applicable election laws before you start fundraising and spending.
7. Write your campaign plan (strategic objective, tactical targets, key message, target audiences, methods of delivery, timing, your progress evaluation — polls).
8. Learn the political and economic issues and develop your campaign message.
9. Prepare the “speech” and the “book” (the “speech” is the standard speech that you deliver and it should answer the most important question — why are you running for President; the “book” contains the message and all possible questions on your program.
10. Take a benchmark poll - it will provide the road map for your campaign.
11. Establish your strategy and message
12. Study the results, polls and “successful” areas of previous election.
13. Establish a perfect graphic look (image).
14. Develop a fundraising plan, put the fundraising team in place and start asking for money. No money - no campaign.
15. Create a personal contacts pyramid (priority and general contacts) because personal popularity is your starting point.
16. Set up offices.
17. Get professional candidate training.
18. Determine the focus of your presidential policy (taxes, crime, education, health, social security, national security).
1. 2 Working with the Staff
Basic campaign staffers include:
1) campaign managers — they plan the campaign, organize and recruit the staff, supervise daily campaign operations, make priority contacts with key special groups big business and big media, correct the strategy and make quick decisions. It has to be someone you trust completely.
2) campaign consultants-specialists in both direct (personal and public meetings) and indirect (media, advertising) campaigning
3) strategists
4) analysts
5) issues researchers
6) speechwriters
7) lawyer (interprets election and campaign reporting laws)
8) personal assistants (work on issues in foreign and domestic policy in cooperation with the whole team).
9) fundraisers (plan and execute fundraising events — dinners, parties, auctions, direct appeals through telephone and letters, receptions, computerized fundraising). Big business has to be approached by rich fundraiser only.
10) scheduler (determines events and locations — TV and radio talk shows, news — conferences, meetings with students and professors at college campuses and with professionals at their associations’ annual meetings, special events and fundraisers especially with ethnic leaders in big cities, as well as festivals and big shows where celebrities demonstrate their support, large extravaganzas, meetings at civic clubs, farm warehouse auctions and special auctions, local civic events. Also, scheduler makes arrangements with local media before your visit and sends media the copies of your speech; insures that good crowd will attend the event and takes care of transportation arrangements). The purpose of the campaign planning and strategic scheduling is to draw press attention to the candidate for transmission to the voting public. That’s natural — the candidate who has enough media attention has much better chances of recruiting public acceptance and raising campaign funds.
11) image makers - political consultants who sell your public image as a clear, simple, portrait-like characterization, acceptable to all groups.
12) “hit men” - campaign consultants who are experts on negative advertising, designed to “kill” your opponents.
13) field staff (in target cities mostly). The most important person at any local office is the coordinator — he establishes organization and contacts influential people and political activists. Coordinators must be appointed to each special interests group (women, minorities, unions, college students, public interest activists, the professionals)
14) local volunteers are needed to work in the offices and the streets. Your family has to take an active part in your campaign, too. Your wife and kids are your visual image makers
15) running mate
During the “invisible primary” which is the nomination, campaign you have to make visits to party organizations especially in pivotal states, such as the above mentioned Iowa and New Hampshire where you have to make as many handshaking and personal contacts as possible. Key staffers must travel with you.
1.3 Fundraising
You are the #1 fundraiser yourself. You must have substantial financial support to compete. You must have an overall plan which outlines expenditures month by month. It is imperative to have even more money on hand at the end of the campaign for an advertising blitz when the voters are most attentive and the field of candidates has been winnowed out. Half of a campaign funds go to media.
Failing to do well in early caucus and primary contests means more than losing delegates — it means that contributions stop.
Your speeches have to be a fun, and match the meal and drinks — don’t be heavy and too political. Actually, you have to run two campaigns (a political campaign and a fund-raising one) and you must win both; if you raise less money than your opponent, you lose, because you don’t have enough money to inform, influence, and motivate your voters. If you are a Senator or a Congressman, you already have an advantage in money (free postage on mail sent to your constituents, automatic media coverage) and you can use your congressional staff to assist your campaign. Besides, you are interviewed by reporters for free as an elected official. You can also ask your political party for a contribution to your campaign. Party money can be given in two ways - as a “direct” contribution or as a “coordinated” expenditure. Direct contributions are funds given by the party to candidates to do with as they please. Coordinated expenditures are made for such services as polling and TV advertising, but the party has a say how the money is spent. Then you have to ask PACs (political action committees) to fund your campaign, too. PACs are special-interest groups which consist of people who pool their money in order to contribute it to candidates or political party committees who share their political, social, religious or economic views. PACs include corporations, trade unions, profe hire.
To finish well in pre-nomination popularity contests (“straw polls”) you have to appear daily in TV ads, and prime-time news coverage — after the primaries media “label” winners and losers and that affects voters and contributors a lot. Media, especially the most influential “the New York Times” and “Washington Post” (their publications influence decisions on which news stories will be carried on TV channels), have to take you as a very serious contender.
The key rules in fundraising are:
- find some “fat cats,” quick
- get fundraisers with lots of rich friends
- get money from those who usually contribute
- go to new York, Florida, California, Texas
And the most important strategy is to raise big money for yourself and prevent big money from being spent against you. Early fundraising is crucial to a campaign because of the high costs organization and the need to demonstrate viability. The best states for fundraising are California, New York, Florida, Texas, which supply half of all campaign donations. Go right ahead and raise money in New York and spend in Iowa and New Hampshire.
1.4 “Winning” geography
Due to the winner-take-all electoral college system, in which the leading vote-getter in a state wins all of that state’s electoral votes, you MUST win as many large states as possible rather than build up strength in states where you are weak. You have to win a majority (270 of the 538 electoral votes) and for that, concentrate on visits to the most populous states — California, New York, Texas, Florida, Pennsylvania, Illinois, Ohio, Michigan, New Jersey, North Carolina, and Georgia 54+33+32+25+23+22+21+18+15+14+13 = 270).
Work closely with your party activists and supporters among Senators, Representatives, Governors, Mayors, ethnic and religious groups leaders, big business, celebrities, unions leaders. Determine the states in which you are the strongest and then build you campaign on that basis. Republicans have usually done well in recent years in the Midwest, West and South (Tennessee, Kentucky, Texas, Oklahoma). Democrats win in the Northeast industrial base, Mid-Atlantic and Pacific Coast. New York City is a very important factor because the most active, influential and rich people live there.
1.5 The Press
The press officer (contacts media, takes care of newspapers, radio and TV ads) — the person who markets you — is the boss of advance team that takes care in each state of a total exclusively positive press coverage. To my mind, the best choice for this position is a former journalist with good wide connections to media. He prepares press releases and press kits and schedules interviews and press conferences with the positive vision and attitude reporters (press or media kits contain your photos, a brief biography, campaign position papers, printed brochures and names of contacts for additional information).
The technique in good paid advertising is to go with those ideas, arguments, thoughts, themes and believes in which people are already inclined to believe or ready to accept. There’s no difference between commercial and political advertising — you just substitute a car or shampoo for a human being. Modern presidential campaigns center on “media events” — staged public appearances, during which reporters can talk with you and take pictures (if you have too much money, you can organize media wave — a very large amount of political advertising on TV). Then, the “walking tours” must be scheduled when you, followed by reporters, photographers and TV crews visit potential supporters. Simultaneously your aide sets up press conferences, selects interviews, and background briefings. You have to talk to press 24/7 and everywhere on the campaign bus, train or plain, hotel, etc. A good thing is — you get free media coverage and people trust it more than paid coverage, like TV and radio commercials.
You win if you obey these rules:
- if you can manipulate media - you manipulate the nation (sorry, it’s harder to manipulate free coverage).
- the media makes the election, not the voters
- a presidential campaign does not allow for privacy
- newspapers put emphasis on issues, TV on image, style and ability to communicate.
- never lie to reporters; they will make sure it backfires on you sooner or later.
- if an influential newspaper, radio or TV station endorses you, you have their supporters, readers, listeners and viewers.
- people remember much better what they see, not what they read; if they don’t see you on TV, you don’t exist.
- TV talks to 98% of Americans and takes your message — and other messages about, or against, you - immediately, straight to the nation.
- TV, not your political party, is the #1 channel of communication between you and the public
- your political party is nothing but a service center and a money machine. Parties divide the nation while your message has to be one of unity.
- take it seriously if The New York Times takes your opponent seriously.
- it’s important to know what your opponent is saying to reporters privately, “not for attribution.”
- if you live in heavily populated state, like New York, California or Texas, you start the presidential election campaign with much better coverage.
- never fight the media like the Nixon administration did - they kept a list of Nixon’s critics (famous reporters), so they could be targeted for harassment, accused of income tax evasion, etc. What happened then? The reporters felt like heroes, Nobel Prize winners. Better target them for buttering up, and feed them lots of stories with a spin in your favor, instead.
1.6 Polls
Pollsters works through newspapers, Internet, telephone surveys, person-to-person surveys, mailed questionnaire to selected voters. They provide voters′ behavior research and analyze past election data. They tell to you how well-known you are, how well you perform, what are the voters’ preferences. You should poll voters in each state in proportion to that state’s share of the national vote. (You must have at least one polling company on payroll.) Polling is of extreme importance in presidential campaign because it’s the tool to correct your strategy, determine “positive” local areas and supportive voters and work with them, it tests the nation’s attitude to your personality and your issues and that means you can calibrate your message and calculate your success. The most important thing about polls is that they play indicator and identify support or hostility. And the golden rule here is: you have to ask the right question if you want to get a useful answer.
At the same time polling is one of the most expensive elements of a modern campaign because now you have to receive information on too many groups and issues, including groups with specific economic, ethnic, religious, geographic, educational, occupational and residential characteristics and how those characteristics affect attitudes about a wide range of policy issues.
Polls also help you to :
- decide whether to run or not
- improve your recognition and image
- target opposition’s weakness
- formulate media ads
Your pollster has to pinpoint blocks of voters (swing districts) who are undecided and who might be persuaded to vote for you. Experience shows that 40% of public attention go to social problems, 40% — to economy and 20% — to international matters, but if the United States is at war, the situation is different and national security turns into a top priority for everyone. And watch out for campaign spies — keep polls analysis and media plan secret.
Practical polls:
“Benchmark” - surveys of the whole nation which provide basic information about your chances and the nation’s political preferences (it’s your “presidential decision maker”).
“Follow-up” - surveys are used to gather more data about particular concerns raised in initial benchmark surveys. They are conducted state by state and are used in planning campaign strategy.
“Panel” - surveys are used to refine strategy further by re-interviewing previous respondents to determine opinion shifts on specific issues within various demographic categories. They are supplemented by continuous “tracking polls” that measure fluctuations in general voter support for the candidate across time.
“Special group” - used to poll the debate results. Selected groups of voters watch candidate debates and register their “positive “ or “negative” feelings toward the candidate’s specific statements or actions. After that analysts tabulate and analyze the reactions of the whole groups.
1.7 Campaign Golden Tips
Never behave as if you think you are God’s gift to the nation.
Be presidential - look calm, sincere, knowledgeable and open Mother of the nation.
Be electable - prove to the nation that you are the best choice.
No one has ever been elected the US President without winning the New Hampshire primary.
Primaries direct financial backers to a promising candidate.
Voters judge you by your friends - appear with popular politicians, big business, labor and interest groups leaders, and show business celebrities. Advertize your meetings with Congress members and world leaders (go abroad if you have a chance to meet a world leader). The most important event in the election process is the National Convention, not only because the eventual finalist candidate is actually nominated but because after that the campaign’s audience increases (more than twice as many people vote in general elections as participate in the nomination process). You have to decide how to win the support of these new voters as well as to appeal to people who identify with the other party and partisans who backed losing candidates for the nomination.
1.8 Choosing a strategy
Any strategy is good if it helps you to win support of a majority of people chosen by the state parties to be delegates to the national convention. Your choice of a strategy depends on your current position:
A.If you are an incumbent, you have to stress that the American people’s life improved a lot during your first term. You can count on successful start because you are guaranteed to be known actually to every American, and the Oval Office lends you credibility and respect. It’s of vital importance to have economic accomplishments — in such a case well-timed announcements of government statistics on the economy or of plans for domestic initiatives can also help you. Listen, I didn’t tell you this, but you have to manipulate (stimulate) the economy during the election year with tax cuts that can help reduce unemployment, and with social programs financing. Of course, you’ll have to pay for it, but that will happen after you are re-elected. And a good thing is - an improved economy erases voters’ bad memories of past years.
Try to avoid too aggressive campaigning - it’s a sign of weakness. Make official appearances in carefully controlled settings. Influence media coverage with official presidential actions and use “pork barrel” politics to appeal to specific constituents. You can also benefit from the nation’s reluctance to reject a tested national leader for an unknown newcomer. And if you start important foreign policy initiatives, it will guarantee you continued media coverage.
If you have poor chances to be re-elected, you can play the “national security” card:
- find a US “enemy”
- start a media psychosis (see propaganda tricks and brainwashing )
- concentrate power (special services) to establish a total legal control on the nation
- provoke an international conflict, restricted or full-scale war
- send a message: “If you are against the President, you are against America!”
B.If you are a challenger you have to convince the public they don’t live better than they did 4 years ago, or, if the economy is OK, point out mistakes that were made in the foreign policy. Or make up some social issue that will get passions inflamed and hijack the headlines.
You should seek to position yourself as close to the opposing candidate as possible in an effort to capture the “median voter” in the center, and then take by default everyone else on their side of the ideological spectrum. You have to embrace this strategy and move as close as you can to the moderate Republican position with the expectation that you can take all of the votes to the left of this position. Clear ? The job is tough if you challenge a President who is popular — first, you have to break down his positive image; second, you have to portray yourself as a much better replacement. You have no choice but to start with the “outsider” strategy — you present a “fresh face” to voters weary of the current political situation (in such a case you have to attack administration in a very aggressive manner). Plus, you must give quick response to your opponent’s charges (get advance copies of his speeches through friends in the media).
Then, show yourself as a smart and diplomatic person using a special “triangular” strategy, when you, like majority of the voters, place yourself between liberal and conservative positions. Evaluate situation - you may need “early knockout,” when front-runners hope to use their early strength in polls, fundraising and endorsements into decisive primary victories at the beginning of the primary season. The hope is that the candidate will build such an impressive early lead that the competition quickly drops out.
A “shift” is the most popular thing with challengers - if the President is good with national security, they point out to the problems in economy, if he’s good on the economy, they point out to the problems in national security - very simple. (Watch his mistakes anyway - you can benefit from them. Bill Clinton would never have run for President in 1992 if someone from the Bush White House hadn’t called him in 1990 and asked him not to run. That phone call was one of the most stupid political moves of the 20th century, because it convinced Clinton that they thought he had a good chance to win. Be simple, identify with “ordinary people” and no matter what tell the voters your parents or your grandparents “were like them - regular people, not millionaires.”
1.9 "Black" PR
You must know some very popular and efficient dirty tricks, like “negative campaigning” or “black" PR. To make a long story short: no matter what your opponent says or what decent people think about negative campaigning — “black PR” works! Use it to turn a rumor or a fact into a serious political scandal; respond to and neutralize the opponent’s attacks (using “black PR”) fast, before they are broadcasted or published.
It works best through intermediates (persons and organizations not connected directly to your campaign). You must have a very detailed file on your opponent (negative research) and then start spreading negative and all kinds of compromising data from his personal and political life. If he is or was elected official (Senator, Governor, Mayor), you can point out his mistakes and actions which were not popular. People must know in detail (get your staff to read a few books) the negative sides of his life, program and terrible consequences of his election. Remember also that a rumor repeated twice turns into a fact, especially if you start a “whispering campaign” in Congress.
A “negative ID” trick is my favorite: you identify your opponent with a totally unacceptable (for the voters) viewpoint, like: “There are those who want to stop the war on international terror and you know who they are!”
1.10 Attention : debates !
Debates are extremely important because they offer the only all-national event at which candidates can be judged. You and your opponent will be under huge stress as you both must operate simultaneously at the focus of attention of each other and of all elements of electorate. Debates are, actually, head-to-head confrontations with two main aspects: the pre-debate negotiations over whether there will be a debate, and the post-debate analysis of who did how well. The debates offer nothing new for the public and the basic strategy is to hope your opponent will make a mistake (President Ford made one in 1976, saying that: “There is no Soviet domination of Eastern Europe.” People just didn’t want to hear it. Richard Nixon was very wrong in 1960 trying to debate on substance, while his opponent, John F. Kennedy, concentrated on style and on presenting the correct presidential image).
While preparing for the winning debates you must:
- have a detailed file on your opponent and study all his speeches and statements; ask yourself: “What does he have that I don’t have?”
- train to answer all possible questions
- be ready to demonstrate deep knowledge of issues and your presidential bearing to a nationwide audience
- repeat your message but keep in mind that image is more important than ideas while you debate — people want to see your good looks, good clothes and nice smile.
And here are the debating “Don’ts”:
Don’t attack first — that’s a sign of weakness.
Don’t be over-polite — a little showmanship appeals to voters.
Don’t be too aggressive — it will ruin your image as a future President.
Don’t answer the questions too fast — that implies you are not thinking.
Don’t rush, no negative emotions, no sudden gestures (extra gestures mean that you are not sure what you are saying is correct).
Don’t disappoint people — speak in a clear and simple way.
And you restrict your influence if you sit.
Follow the rules :
No anxiety reactions - speech errors, moistening of lips, perspiring, shifting eye movements, body jerks. Gesturing with fingers apart communicates weakness, while gesturing with fingers tightly together communicates power.
Look at your opponent with intense concentration - it gives the attitude of command and comfort of the situation.
Answer a question you want to answer, no matter what question was asked.
If you give better answers, you are the better candidate.
Immediately after the debates your press officer has to give the media his biased impression and explain why you won the debates. Your pollster has to watch the polls results.
1.11 Speaking in Public
"Golden" rules
1. Your aides have to determine the “theme of the day” and brief you about the day’s events and issues. To get elected you must promise economic growth with low inflation and balanced budget no matter how grave the economic situation is.
2.Don’t be too specific on issues and tell people they elect their way, not a candidate.
3. Cite the Bible.
4. Don’t look too intellectual.
5. State repeatedly that you’re not going to divide the nation into supporters and enemies, Democrats and Republicans, “my voters and other voters” — be a leader to all. (But first, to win the nomination you must appeal to the more liberal sections of your party if you are Democrat, and to more conservative sections if you belong to Republicans).
6. Don’t talk much; transform your thoughts into examples and slogans.
7. Never say you want power, even if you want to save the nation in crisis.
8. Never talk down on big business. Promise federal financing, especially in economic downturns.
9. Remember: voters are extremely sensitive to tax-cut proposals and which social segment would benefit from them. The middle class brings you victory, so promise tax cuts for these people, with tax increases for the wealthy and high unemployment rates.
10. Even if the economy is OK, point out the signs of coming crisis and promise to change the situation fast. Keep talking about problems, though it’s hard to win if the incumbent President runs for re-election with balanced budget and economic growth.
11. You can be liberal on domestic issues, but you have to be conservative on national security (defense and foreign affairs).
12. Remember the “women factor”: there are more women than men in our country, women are more likely to be registered to vote, and among registered voters women are more likely to vote.
What to talk about where:
Iowa, New Hampshire - farm problems, energy costs, trade issues
Northern “rustbelt” states - industrial concerns
Southern states - defense and social issues
New York State - unemployment
Use these tactics:
1.“Join the crowd” — this reinforces people’s natural desire to be on the winning side and it is used to convince the audience that your program is an expression of the nation’s desire for change, and it is in their best interest to join;
2. “Provoked disapproval” - persuade a target audience to disapprove your opponent’s message by suggesting that the message is popular with groups hated, feared or held in contempt by the target audience;
3. “Iinevitable victory” - you invite those who did not join majority;
4. “Neuro-linguistic programming” — you will be elected if you can do this better than your opponent and program the whole nation for a positive reaction. People always try to avoid anything and anybody unpleasant; and people are always looking for pleasant things and other pleasant people, somebody they want to meet again and again or at least see on TV. Everybody wants to be a winner; and to be a winner brings pleasure and self respect. Just convey this sense to the nation: “Vote for me and win!” or “Vote for me or lose!”, “The choice is yours!”
Come in !
Be strong. Be attractive. Be logical.
All you have to do during your first term is to take care of the second one.
The 2nd term’s agenda is to set your place in the world’s history.
1st year. You have enough public support to start big initiatives.
2nd year. Develop your initiatives.
3rd year. Go, go public preparing your re-election. Presidents often lose voters during this period.
4th year. All-politics year. Try to achieve important international agreement (a treaty) for the historic record. Win re-election.
Divide your day into hours and minutes : 30% of your weekly hours go to senior White House staff, 10% - to Cabinet, 5% - to Congress members, 5% - to foreign leaders.
No matter what, even if it’s a war time, sleep one hour during the day to give your brain a break, and finish your day at 6 P.M. After 6 P.M. do not read any documents, do not take any phone calls, do not talk to anybody but family members and close friends.
Eat whatever you want, but remember, the more calories you have to digest, the slower you think.
1. You are a national image (a national ideal based on pseudo-facts), a symbol of national unity, national continuity and the symbol of federal government. Leadership is the first quality Americans look for in you - they want a President who is steadfast in his convictions.
2. The power to control the federal budget is your top prerogative.
3. Define for yourself whom are you going to be:
- utopist (ideas manipulator)
- manager (Government and Congress manipulator)
- challenger (reformer)
4. Any problem turns into a political one if it threatens your power.
5. Use your legal right to press the nation and illegal ones to press the world to eliminate problems.
4. Once you’re in politics, you are a hostage of your status and you must sacrifice privacy in return for power.
6. Never play alone.
7. All your decisions are risk taking ones (any decision brings a problem). You may ask advice before you make a decision, but don’t listen to anybody afterwards. You are not paid for the quantity of your work but for leadership and ultimate decision making.
8. Correct political mistakes fast, before they become political scandals.
10. Never blame previous presidents for the problems they left for you - that’s a sign of political weakness.
11. Get rid of a White House tradition to deal with problems if they “knock at the door” only.
The White House Staff
Chief of Staff
The Chief of Staff reviews most of the documents that go to you, gives his/her advice after intense information processing and consultations with other agencies and then - he’s/she’s telling others what President wants.
A lot of people, including Congressmen and Senators, will try to reach you through him/her.
He/she has to give exact instructions to the Press Secretary on the White House message about current headlines and the President’s plans and actions (the Press Secretary works the same way with VP and First Lady/First Gentleman press teams).
He/she is responsible for your time and has to plan at least two months ahead your effective activity together with Communications, Scheduling and other policy offices’ Directors plus VP and First Lady/First Gentleman Chiefs of Staff. Besides, he/she has to do “dirty jobs” for the President like firing people or act as a “lighting rod” to draw criticism away from the President.
National Security Adviser
The National Security Adviser controls all the documents concerning national security coming from Defense, Homeland Security, State Departments, and national security agencies, and coordinates these offices.
His/her position is not subject to Senate confirmation, which, according to a long-standing Washington tradition, means that he/she can’t be compelled to testify before the Congress. He/she decides what papers the President should see and, what’s more, he gives his comments on any document.
ATTENTION :National security is 100% the President’s business, so keep this figure at some distance and don’t let him think of himself as your Number Two - foreign leaders will try to work through him to get to you or to influence you.
He/she has to oversee the functioning of the National Security Council (NSC), which is your foreign policy making tool and a “government inside government.” This is something very special and convenient about the NSC - it’s responsible only to you and there’s not much Congress control over its budget. Plus, National Security Adviser is involved in every meeting between you and any foreign leader and is responsible for the schedule.
The most powerful of executive offices after the National Security Council is the Office of Management and Budget (it’s authorized to make cuts in federal agencies’ budgets, to advise you on national fiscal and economic policies, supervise execution of the government budget, evaluate the performance of federal programs).
Who they really are
Staffers (and Secretaries) prefer stability and don’t like if you’re “rocking the boat” - that’s why they often play reform-stoppers.
They don’t like to work hard and prefer to send you on “very important visits” abroad as often as possible.
They try to load you up with an extremely busy schedule and “feed” you witnh hundreds of useless documents, create artificial problems and conflicts to show off their hyper-activity.
They try to be your decision makers and they do influence you because, unlike Secretaries, they have daily contact with you; that’s why you don’t see Cabinet members as your principal aides.
They try to set you up by interpreting your decisions and orders in their own way, as every adviser is the “American President himself.”
They know you won’t accept “complicated,” “expensive,” “risky” projects and they’ll try to sell you “simple,” “cheap” and “popular” ones only.
Watch your senior staff and how they present ideas. If somebody wants to push his idea or a project, he will give you three options, making two of them unattractive. Naturally you pick the one he presented as least harmful.
Their dirty tricks
1. Fight for access (influence) to President or to people with direct access (aiming to get a better position if President is re-elected).
2. Isolate government from the President.
3. Influence = relationship with the President.
4. Get a table in the West Wing. You are nobody if you are stuck in the White House basement and see the President by appointment only.
5. Before you send a document to the President, have to look at it and ask yourself if it’s too immoral or too radical.
6. Never say “no” aloud to anybody.
7. Remain anonymous with conflicts.
8. Never bring bad news to the President - let it be some idiot, not you.
9. Never say “That’s impossible,” no matter what the President is asking you to do.
10. Disappear (and find an excuse later) if the President is in a bad mood.
11. Never ague with the President if there’s somebody else present.
12. Learn how the President likes to do business (talking, giving orders, writing the documents and taking notes, managing official and non-official meetings) and his habits (food, drinks, cigarettes, favorite sport, movies, show business stars, writers, politicians; attitude to women) and try to copy him — the President has to feel comfortable with you.
13. Fight anybody who’s trying to do your job to be closer to the President.
14. Avoid taking on risky tasks controlled by the President in person (if necessary, try to “delegate” it to somebody else).
15. Avoid being associated with any failures.
16. Don’t say anything President doesn’t want to hear.
17. Use “Smith’s Principle”: if it can be understood by Congress, it’s not finished yet.
18. Write memorandums not to inform the reader, but to protect the writer.
19. No matter what subject is under discussion, employ the language of sports and war: say “breakthrough” instead of “progress” , never speak of compromise, consider “adopting a fallback position.”
20. Every public appearance in with the President is an investment in your career after the White House.
21. Minimize the number of rivals.
22. Gain independence according to how much the President needs you.
23. Before asking the President for some personal favor, make him believe he’s going to get some (political) profit out of it.
24. Tell the President what he can do and help him try to do it, and never tell him what he shouldn’t do.
25. Avoid giving any personal gifts to the President if you are not Chief of Staff.
Every public appearance in with the President is an investment in your career after the White House.
There is an open power struggle between national security staff members and domestic policy staff and between those who develop new policies and initiatives versus budget staff.
How to Manage the Staff
Adopt a dominant management style:
1. Pyramidal, structured as hierarchy with you at the top, followed by the Chief of Staff and other key assistants. I strongly recommend this one - it insures a clear chain of command and provides precise channels of information going up and directives going down.
2. Circular, when you are surrounded by advisers, all of whom have equal access to the Oval Office. That means chaos (JFK style).
All your assistants are political assistants and everyone will try to play a policy-maker. But a good thing is that all of them were not elected and are responsible to you only.
Thus you can:
- reform your staff freely as there’s not even a word about it in the US Constitution
- interchange key figures if domestic crisis is approaching
- if you don’t agree with the staff on important issues, go to polls for back-up. (The best employee is the one you can blackmail. Besides, a very good “pusher” for your people is their deep understanding that they have to work together to help the President stay in office next term because if the President leaves, everybody leaves)
- use “the carrot and the stick” tactics
- use “pulling by pushing” - give an important job without publicity to those who become too popular
- do as little reading as you can - you have staff for that
- do as little writing as you can - same reason
- involve yourself personally in your staff and Cabinet jobs as little as you can - same reason
- make no minor decisions - same reason
- send back any intelligence or other report if it’s more than one sheet of paper
The Pocket Cabinet
If the bureaucrats are wearing you down, you have the right to fire any Secretary. However, Cabinet members must be approved by Senate, therefore, you have to negotiate with the Senate leaders and party leaders throughout the country. As a result, some positions may go to people you don’t know well and can’t trust. Then if you want to re-organize the Cabinet you have to confront the Congress, because Congress tries to protect the interests of its constituents, who are often the clients of the existing bureaucratic agencies. So, if you plan changes you have to appoint people who share your strategy.
You may also need to offer a position to a group that you need to support in the coming election, or whose help you need; or to help pass legislation (these people will be more loyal to their political benefactors than to you).
Secretaries have disadvantages compared to the staffers as they don’t have easy access to the Oval Office (again, that depends on you). Some of them had little or no contact with you before being appointed. Actually, their task is to win the backing of key interest groups and that’s why you, practically speaking, don’t need Cabinet meetings (if there’s no crisis). If a Cabinet member feels independent (usually, that’s the Secretary of State), don’t fire him/her – substitute him/her by the national security adviser or send him abroad on a regular basis .
The Cabinet members work hard during a crisis only. They prefer to save their plans and suggestions for private conversations with you, because that is what you need them for and they are competing with other Secretaries for your time, support and for funds.
It’s not easy for the President to make government agencies work effectively : first, you have no time, second – they have no competition. Anyway, you must have insiders in all departments, especially in the Justice Department (FBI), CIA and Secret Service firing anybody who’s trying to dig up dirt on you.
Secretary of Defense.
The Secretary of Defense is a very special and unique position for many reasons. This department is regarded a non-political one, defending the United States no matter what (never let him decide, though, what and where US interests are). Military leaders have a lot of friends in Congress who press the administration to accept military demands. Besides, it’s not easy to manage the Pentagon, as you depend on the military for evaluations of the national military capacities; they decide also what kinds of weapons to buy and build. Half of the federal budget goes to Pentagon, making it a major department and that’s the most frustrating aspect of your management.
You have to find compromise between you, Congress, public opinion, interest groups and defense contractors’ lobbyists.
The defense budget affects diplomacy and international relations, because governments worldwide scrutinize it for clues about US global intentions. For example, increases in defense spending, particularly for items such as naval vessels and aircraft, may signal your intention to pursue more aggressive foreign policies, and cuts in defense spending may indicate an effort to scale back on defense commitments.
Hidden Structure
The Cabinet is divided into the inner circle (State, Defense, Treasury, Justice) and outer, less important one (Interior, Agriculture, Commerce, Labor, Health and Human Services, Housing, Transportation, Energy, Education, Veterans Affairs, Homeland Security). While inner Cabinet members are selected more on the basis of personal friendship and loyalty, outer Cabinet members are selected more on the basis of geographical, ethnic or political representation and adopt an advocacy position for their Departments.
The inner Cabinet is divided into two groups:
а) national security group (State and Defense Departments).
b) legal-economic group (Justice and Treasury Departments). The Attorney General usually serves as the president’s attorney and this special responsibility leads to close personal contact with the President. The Secretary of Treasury is very important in domestic monetary and fiscal policies and international trade and currency.
The outer Cabinet is a “domestic” group. Don’t waste your time meeting them - you have enough staffers for that. Sometimes “outer” Secretaries try to build their political base of support within their own bureaucracies. Don’t hesitate to fire and replace any of them if they start to criticize you and behave politically independent, counting on bureaucratic and interest groups’ support.
There’s one (negative for you) thing in common between all Secretaries - self-interest pushes them to protect and expand their departments and then they act more like representatives of their departments to the President then the presidential envoys they were appointed to be (“divided loyalty”).
ATTENTION : Secretaries of State and Defense usually form a coalition against your National Security Adviser. You must be a smart mediator as Commander-in-Chief. These two have weekly meetings, and each of them has a weekly meeting with the DNI (Director of National Intelligence), so you must know from independent sources what they are talking about in case they “forget” to tell you the details. The Defense Secretary meets weekly with the Joint Chiefs, too.
Mind Control
Every day in 2004 we watched the Homeland Security Department "terror alert colors" and very often the threat was "high" or "very high." With all my 30 years espionage experience I couldn’t understand why they were telling the nation about the threat and producing the multicolor picture on TV. Why? What can ordinary Americans do about that? What happened next made the situation absolutely clear for me and posed one more question for the nation: right after President Bush was re-elected the colors disappeared – why? Again, what happened? Is there no more "terror threat" to America? There is. But there’s mind control, too.
Mind control, which I call mind manipulation or MM, is used to program the "right political behavior" of the nation or "indifferent behavior" (if necessary) without people’s knowing or understanding the procedure.
We are talking here about total illegal social control.
Principles of Mind Manipulation
1) It’s not enough if every single citizen, and the nation as a whole, thinks and behaves your way – it’s much better if they want to behave your way and feel comfortable, and are absolutely sure it’s their own choice and, finally, they become your active supporters.
2) If you want to control the nation and program peoples’ thoughts, you have to control knowledge (information, culture and communication).
3) The political imagination (belief) of the nation has to move in the right direction and has to be accepted as the most comfortable and most acceptable way of political activity: nobody is thinking, nobody is criticizing the President, nobody is making comparisons and drawing conclusions. Everybody believes the American President and hates his enemies.
4) Don’t waste time fighting foreign ideology, take care of ordinary Americans.
5) There is no difference between commercial and political advertising, and MM.
American Propaganda Technology
You need 24/7 effective propaganda to get non-stop public support of your policy — your war for public support does not stop the day you enter the White House — it may stop the day you leave the White House. If your polls go below 40%, the United States effectively has no President.
Use propaganda tricks:
- general (abstract) information on big problem
- information dosage (the less people know — the easier you convince them)
- misinformation (full or partial) presented as news, sensations, rumors
- disorientation – one bit of information contradicts another one
- provocation – information "pushes" people (before you start war)
- information over-dosage – too much information (and people lose interest)
- exaggeration of enemy’s negative sides and promotion of scary data
- distraction of nation’s attention from news that is bad (for you) by publishing sensations and (political) scandals
- stereotype manipulation ("nuclear threat," "international terror," etc.
- "shuffle" – all news and facts match President’s political course
- "cocktail" – mix of true and false information
-"facts transportation" from abroad (you buy a foreign reporter and he’s publishing positive information on your politics; then you spread the information through American media)
Remember the principles of mass psychology: people don’t believe the government – they believe the market and the stock exchange; people need statements, not analysis.
MM Technology
1) Create a steadfast American collective will-power: “We want to live forever in the America we live in now” - through the media.
2) Don’t ask people to change their views and beliefs - they have only to change the object of their aggression - “Now we understand who are America′s enemies! (the previous President, Republicans).
3) Get people accustomed to accept facts but believe only in the “right” comments - any common sense has to be “switched off.” This way you create “mass artificial schizophrenia” — people lose the ability to connect statements and facts (notions) and just believe.
Besides, by extreme exaggeration of the enemy’s negative qualities you can install the national schizophrenic fear (of "international terrorism") and people have to accept you, the US President, as a savior. Plus, no matter what, repeat your major statements until people start accepting them without thinking.
4) Divide the nation into “good Americans”(patriots) and “bad Americans”(the “minority).
Make it clear : it’s much better and more comfortable to be “good” than “bad.” “We aren’t watching good Americans who support the President. The surveillance is for bad Americans and we make their lives and careers uncomfortable. We have to do that because enemies of America may be using them.” This method is called artificial social selection and its ultimate goal is a total regulation and standardization of the nation.
5) For successful MM, use the combined efforts of popular Democratic American writers, TV and radio anchors, talented publicists and columnists, business and show business celebrities, politicians. Thus, step by step you create the “industry of correct political behavior and correct American thinking.”
6) Use a combination: statement + image. It reduces the effort needed to understand your message and makes people comfortable with you.
7) Shift all popular TV shows to prime time - Americans don’t have to think about politics after they come home.
During his first presidential campaign Obama used my strategy of psycho-epidemic.
It′s simple - you hypnotize people by permanent repetition of a certain word, like "Change!", a phrase, a slogan. A crowd, and even a nation, , often behaves like a dog, it′s very submissive if there′s a strong personality, a strong leader in front of it. Then, the reflex appears - once you see a strong leader, you must listen to him and follow his orders.
Strategic planning
That’s the biggest problem for all administrations.
Strategic planning is the process of making present decisions based on well-calculated future consequences. The basic strategic objective is a decision as to where to concentrate the government efforts this is the essence of strategic planning.The worst example of strategic planning is the war in Iraq.
It is crucial to choose a professional crew and place people in positions where their brains will work effectively and produce quality.
Planning formula:
- design strategy
- amplify and clarify strategy into policy
- organize a team
- guide execution
- make final strategic decision
A. Regular Planning Model:
subject, concept, idea definition of objectives
design of innovative options and debate
exploration of concepts, claims and possibilities
development of program outlines
establishment of expected performance criteria and indications
information gathering
integration of ideological elements
assignment of executive responsibility
analysis and experiment
experiment evaluation, examination of likely consequences
comparison of expected and actual performance levels
determination of costs
strategic decision
B. Express planning: information interpretation, projects design, choice of a project, decision
C. Regular (math) model:
Negotiations planning (example): pressure, compromise, tricks, break.
Let’s evaluate "pressure": negative international reaction /-1/, breakdown /-1/ ,positive effect /+1/. Score: -2+1=-1 Conclusion: no pressure should be used.
D. Expertise model.
Government crisis (example): poor planning- wrong decisions- wrong actions- wrong execution- opposition activation- mass protests- coup
E. Scale model.
Risk factors: Risk levels:
Intenational sanctions : medium
High inflation rise : medium to high
High unemployment : medium to high
Low public support level(low polls) : medium
Presidential decision making
1.Decision making is a multiple choice process.
2. Any decision involves political risk.
3. If you can’t make a decision, you need more information.
4. Be optimistic, but remain realistic.
5. Give yourself a deadline.
6. No brainstorming chaos.
7. There are two kinds of decisions: irreversible and reversible. Better know which kind you are facing.
Here’s the process:
a) Identify the problem
b) Analyze the problem — what are the facts?
c) Evaluate options - what are the pros and cons? what can go wrong?
d) Identify choices - which alternative is the best?
e) Implement plans - what action needs to be taken?
As the world #1 leader you have to know that this world is being ruled not by you but by 11 financial corporations : Barclays, Goldman Sachs, Capital Group Companies, FMR Corp, AXA, State Street Corp, JP Morgan Chase, Legal & General Group, Vanguard Group, UBS AG, Merrill Lynch & Co Inc.
Psychological Modeling of a President (Strategic Intelligence Method)
Intelligence services worldwide watch political leaders during public appearances, trying to calculate their physical and mental health judging by their look and behavior. In the US they also evaluate the executives and staffers who surround the President at official meetings to calculate what’s going on in the White House.
They look at:
- a very detailed biography
- personal needs, interests, philosophy
- political views
- intelligence, will-power, character, abilities
- behavior in crisis situations
- compromising facts and possible methods of influence
- personal, political and big business VIP connections
- financial situation
- administration and team
- political opposition and President
- Congress
Domestic headache
You can’t separate domestic and foreign policies because they are married to the same ugly guy - the budget deficit.
Domestic policy rests on three legs: education, health and environment. Americans will never support reduced funding for education, Social Security and Medicare (Medicaid) cuts and weakened environmental-protection laws. But I strongly advise you – don’t bother trying to emulate Europe and the British Commonwealth by providing health care for all – the privately insured middle class (your voting majority) won’t stand for it. If you don’t believe me, go to the polls.
Now, are you a challenger in politics? If "yes," strengthen your political positions in Washington, DC first, then start some reforms. Before you start a reform you have to win the information war with your opponents and get public support. A reform is always a venture; the process may start taking on momentum and you won’t be able to stop it. You had better continue old reforms using a new tactic because new reforms bring new problems, new enemies and new mistakes, and big economic mistakes bring you an economic crises.
Dealing with big business
1. Big organized money moves big political machines, big political machines move big lobbies, big lobbies move the President.
2. The President is an investment.
3. A group that rules the economy rules the White House.
4. A new political course comes not with a new President, but a change of big business’ global financial interests.
5. Follow 3 "golden rules":
- protect big investments
- help to promote
- don’t interfere
6. If the government doesn’t meet the needs of big business, it forms a new one of its own (something like a President’s Council). This usually happens when the President can’t provide financial stability and super-profits. Besides, big business has much more important foreign connections than the government.
7. Big business is:
a) money
b) political and economic control
8. Any political action gets an economic (big business) reaction.
In terms of partisan politics, Republicans are considered to be more sympathetic to big business interests while traditionally Democrats get electoral and financial support from organized labor. Forget about antitrust policy business has become more global and efforts to enforce antitrust policies have proven deficient and are threats to national security.
Managing the economy
1.Regulate spending, taxation, monetary policy and foreign trade whic has to be under strict political control – you have the right to propose legislation and veto any legislation you think incorrect. Keep in mind that Americans always insist on reducing government spending on foreign aid and space exploration, and they naturally hate any rise in taxes.
2.State and local governments, both through national associations like the US Conference of Mayors and Congress Members, always press the government to get more federal funds even at the expense of inflationary budget deficits.
3.Keep unemployment low and prices stable – these two factors are politically dangerous and failure here can bring a free-fall in approval ratings.
4.Take credit for economic growth, price stability and low unemployment even if you have nothing to do with it.
Still have problems? Try international initiatives.
There are four inevitable factors that will limit your control over the economy:
1) You must share power with Congress — you can’t levy taxes or appropriate money all by yourself;
2) The theoretical nature of the science of economics — no single economic theory has ever explained the behavior of the economy in the future;
3) The imprecision of economic information. Economic statistics and indicators do not measure the immediate conditions of the economy, but rather the conditions that prevailed between one and three months ago, depending on the particular economic statistics. Consequently, if you take action on the basis of incoming economic information you may be reacting to a problem that no longer exists or that is much worse than believed.
4) There are forces outside the reach of the federal government, like international factors (oil prices and foreign trade policies), state and local governments economic decisions and mistakes, big business decisions that affect employment, inflation, the trade deficit and public opinion — which is always against cutting social programs.
Budget deficit
A large budget deficit is a headache and has extremely negative effects on the economy:
1. It limits the government’s flexibility to fight a possible recession; that requires tax cuts and deficit spending, which would exacerbate the debt problem. Since tax revenues fall during a recession and unemployment insurance and welfare payments rise, the budget would be under further strain precisely when deficit spending would be needed to pull the economy up.
2. It reduces the amount of funds available for achieving the nation’s social and defense goals, because interest must be paid on the national debt.
3. It can threaten the economy by "crowding out" corporate and private borrowers from the credit market. Because the government must borrow heavily to finance its deficit, it competes with business and individuals to borrow funds. The increased competition forces interest rates higher, causing loans (including mortgages) to become more expensive. As a result, business can afford to purchase less plant and equipment to expand and modernize their operations and fewer consumers can afford to finance purchases of expensive items, such as houses and cars. The resulting reduction in demand threatens economic growth.
4. The US budget deficit has become so large that domestic savings no longer can provide enough capital to service the debt. Consequently, the government must borrow from foreign sources to make up the difference. This makes us dependent on foreign investors and raises the possibility of a "stabilization crisis," which can occur if foreign investors lose confidence in the dollar and liquidate their US investments. Such a crisis could cause the dollar to plummet and interest and inflation to rapidly accelerate.
Crisis means that your government as a system is exhausted and it’s unable to rule the nation and resources effectively in an extreme situation, including economic, natural catastrophes and war. A crisis has three stages - before the crisis, when the first signs appear; crisis development until culmination; catastrophe followed by impeachment. A crisis could be "programmed" at the very beginning of your term (mistakes in political and economic courses, inexperienced personnel, faulty planning) or it can appear later (too many mistakes, change of political environment, shifts in the economic or international situation). Crisis management includes pre-crisis management and handling of the situation. You must be ready not only for a government crisis but also for sudden military attack, mass riots and natural disasters.
International trade is an important component of national security. Our "friends" (NATO members, Saudi Arabia and Japan) favor a dollar (that is neither overvalued nor undervalued) and a healthy US economy with relatively full employment and low inflation rate. If the dollar is weak, the value of much of their international currency reserves declines and their goods are less competitive in the US market. If the dollar is too strong, their investment capital migrates to the US and the high competitiveness of their products in the US market threatens to provoke calls for trade restrictions. If unemployment in the US rises, the major market for their goods declines. If interest rates are higher in the US than in Europe or Japan, investment capital moves to our country. Consequently, foreign governments press the United States to keep the exchange value of the dollar from fluctuating widely and to hold interest rates steady.
Chapter 3. Congress management
It’s much more simple that you think.
1. A Congressional session is a waste of federal time and money - you don’t need debates because Congressional staffers can do all the technical work and they can negotiate between themselves and balance positions. Senators and Congressmen don’t even have to come to Washington - they can vote from their local offices. So these people can spend their time helping thousands of constituents.
2. The President is dependent on Congressional cooperation to carry out the executive responsibilities of the Office because Congress has to authorize government programs, establish administrative agencies to implement the problems and funds to finance them.
ATTENTION : Executive Order might lower this dependence a little bit.
3. It’s important if President belongs to the party with a majority in the House and Senate. But if your party loses the majority in Congress, you have to work out new political strategy yourself.
4. President’s prestige (popular support or political capital) affects Congressional response to his politics.
5. Influence in Congress is courted only for long periods of service; a Senator with 30 years in office (like late Edward Kennedy) has considerably more power than a Senator in his first or second term. This causes the electorate to increasingly favor incumbents, as dislodging one’s Congressman or Senator after 30 years, even if the candidate or his party have become unpopular, can be viewed as hurting one’s district financially. It is often thought that a freshman would be less able to bring home federal money for his state or district.
6. For most Senators, the Senate is a platform for Presidential election campaign. Senators who openly express presidential ambitions are better able to gain media exposure and to establish careers as spokespersons for large national constituencies.
7. The first act of a newly elected Representative is to maneuver for election to the Senate. Why? First, they enjoy their position, power and money for six years non-stop. Second, there are only a hundred Senators and the publicity is much, much greater. But Representatives have a much better chance to be reelected.
8. Congress rejects two thirds of President’s proposals.
9. Senators are always looking for a BBD (bigger, better deal) and often shift from one committee to another (a good choice is those dealing with taxes, budget, energy, commerce).
10. Bills to benefit big business move smoothly. (Congress doesn’t like the poor — they don’t contribute, sorry). To gain majority support for big business legislation members have a special trick - log rolling, when factions combine efforts.
11. Senators don’t depend on the people - they depend on the media.
12. If a Senator is blocking the President’s proposal, he wants to get the President’s attention.
13. When Senators want to bury issues , they create committees.
14. The Senate is a small structure and personal relations between Senators are extremely important.
15. Senators have no incentive to study the details of most pieces of legislation and their decision is simplified by quickly checking how key colleagues have voted or intend to vote.
16.To have power a Senator has to object: much of the Senate work is done by unanimous consent and if you object you’ll be approached for sure by some influential people including other Senators, Secretaries, President’s aides or the President himself. They’ll try to press, blackmail or buy you - and that means you’ve got a piece of the power pie.
17. Senators avoid responsibility in economic policy.
18. Congress loves the military because military contracts are very lucrative for Congressional districts.
19. Senior Senators teach “newcomers” to vote against any reform which is a threat to their stability.
20. A Senator has real influence on legislation only if he has professional staff in charge of the projects.
21. Senators are afraid to vote against a defense budget increase because then they may be accused of a lack of patriotism.
22. Republicans and Democrats are not really enemies, here, though both sides are always looking for a “traitor” or “insider” in the other camp.
23. The President must have “insiders” in the Senate , because the other party could prepare secretly and then launch officially some investigation against you or the members of your Administration.
24. A legislator does exactly what his voters want him to do - stealing federal money from other states and districts, because for him the most important thing is numbers — polls in his state showing how many people approve his activity. His donors watch these numbers too and estimate their investment and the necessity to support re-election.
25. Every member of Congress has a so-called “split personality” - a “Hill style” while working on Capitol Hill and a “home style” while back in the state or district with the voters.
26. A Senator makes a decision only after thinking about what it means in terms of the re-election money that will come to him or to his opponents. His voting decisions depend on his party membership, constituency pressures, state and regional loyalty ideology, interest groups’ influence. His stubbornness comes from the fact that he does not want to be seen by his constituents as a “rubber stamp” for President’s decisions, especially when the bill in question benefits a Senator’s state. (And the hidden problem is - you want to move fast, especially during the first year while your personal popularity is high - but for the Congress speed is not important).
27. Sooner or later every member of Congress starts playing the “pork barrel” game. It’s nothing else but a diversion of federal funds to projects and places not out of national need but to enhance a member’s chances of re-election in his district (military projects, federal buildings, highways construction projects). So be ready for a “Christmas gift” when these fellows add pork barrel amendments to appropriations bills you are about to sign. They often wait until late in each session to pass critical spending bills, which narrows your range of possible responses because a veto may not be feasible if Congress has adjourned and the funds needed to run the federal government are contained in the legislation.
28. In Congress a small percentage of bills (about 500 out of 10,000) actually become law because many bills are introduced merely to get favorable press. The strategy is especially effective if the legislation is “tied” to the headlines of the day (mass murders, natural disasters, ethnic riots etc.).
29. In the Senate it’s easier for a minority to block the bill than for a majority to pass it: a 60-vote majority is needed to force a final vote on the bill, while only 41 votes are needed to continue debate and delay a vote.
30. The minority can hold the majority responsible as the party in power for whatever legislation does or does not emerge from the Senate. But both parties prefer to be the party in power in the Senate - all Senate legislation begins in the committees, whose membership and chairmanship are controlled by the party in power. Besides, each chairman has power in terms of controlling the committee budgets and deciding which hearings will be held and which legislation he will allow to be released to the Senate floor for a vote. He can also “lock up the bill” in committee until it dies. Perfect!
How to Control the Congress
The President can propose legislation, but Congress is not required to pass any of the administration’s bills. But you know already that Senators and Representatives need re-election more than anything else. So you can go with indirect influence through appeals to the public; this is a confrontation and direct challenge to Congressional authority. You can also enlist the support of interest groups or direct influence through favors and personal involvement in the legislative process. (Get public support for a proposal before it’s discussed with the Congress.)
And don’t hesitate to start a national debate — you have enough media attention for that.
You also have an independent tool, presidential power in the form of an executive order. You can give favors directly to members of Congress or to influential people in their constituency, or the favor may be of benefit to the constituency itself:
- appointments with the President and other high-ranking officials
- federal grants to recipients in the constituency, government contracts with local companies, the deposit of federal funds in banks, grants to local government and educational institutions
- support of projects (military installations, research and administrative facilities, public works such as buildings, dams and navigational improvements to rivers and harbors, etc.)
- recommendations for the US district court judges, attorneys, marshals, etc.
- campaign assistance (cash contributions from the party’s national committee invitations to bill-signing ceremonies, White House parties or to accompany President on trips
- bargaining and arm-twisting (pressure and threats to lose the projects).
1. The Congressional Relations Office. Used for:
- intense lobbying to form Congressional coalitions if the opposition controls one or both houses
- intelligence gathering (of policy preferences — centralized headcounts reveal the voting intentions on a particular bill and constituency concerns of individual members)
- representation
- creating “inner coalitions”
- coordination of executive branch legislative activity (monitoring and tracking bills, controlling departments’ staff appointments, collaborating with departments’ liaison offices)
Attention! Senators and Congressmen have to trust your people, who must keep their mouths shut, otherwise there will be no business. Anyway, watch these people — a Senator can call one of your assistants and if they hear “no,” he will try to reach somebody else until he gets “Yes, the President will see you.” Don’t let this happen - if it’s “no,” it has to be everybody’s “no.” There has to be no difference between personal views of your adviser and your official views.
2. Congressional Relations personnel of various executive Departments are a conduit. Talk to the Secretaries and explain to them that they have to give the Director of Congressional Relations their best people.
3. The White House interest groups liaison staff (office of public liaison)
4. Veto. Threatened with a veto, Senators often seek compromise.
Congress has its ways to undermine your vetoes or threats of vetoes. Because you can’t veto parts of a bill, they load up major legislation with amendments on a completely different subject (“riders”) that they know the President must accept. (Presidents who vetoed the most bills: Franklin Roosevelt – 635, Harry Truman – 250, Dwight Eisenhower – 181, Ronald Reagan – 78, Gerald Ford – 66).
5. Executive agreement. It permits the President to enter into open or secret agreements with a foreign government without any advice or consent of the Senate. There are two categories of executive agreements:
а) presidential agreements made solely on the basis of the constitutional authority of the President and under his sole power to faithfully execute the laws (or under his diplomatic or Commander-in-Chief powers). President needs to report secret agreement to the Foreign Relations Committees of the two houses no later than 60 days after such agreement has entered into force. Congress has no authority to disapprove it.
b) congressional-executive agreements, which cover all international agreements entered into under the combined authority of the President and Congress.
Finally, this is what you can do with a bill:
- sign the bill (the bill becomes a law)
- do nothing (the bill becomes a law in ten days)
- veto the bill (the bill does not become a law)
- pocket veto the bill (hold the bill until Congress is no longer in session, and the bill does not become a law)
Chapter 4. Foreign policy
“Golden rules”
1.International treaties have to be negotiated by diplomats prior to endorsement by presidents.
2. The information gathered by spies plays an increasingly role in diplomacy (arms-control treaties would be impossible without the power of reconnaissance satellites and agents to monitor compliance).
3. If you start war, it does not mean you failed diplomacy , it means military decision is much more profitable.
4. Make it clear to foreign leaders right away whether you are or you are not going to follow the previous President’s foreign policy (after consultations with big business). If you are not going to follow it, design a doctrine of your own (it’s a strategy that is the recognized approach or policy of the US government.
5. National security is your top priority and is the “king’s job” because actually you have no domestic political obstacles to your foreign policy (if it’s a question of war), so you are a chief decision maker there. (The CIA Director has to be excluded from from this process — you don’t need him. Besides, the CIA even today, no matter how hard I tried to educate the Agency, remains the worst of the worst and is not to be reformed — it has to be abolished. We have to transfer political intelligence functions to Pentagon. National security is designed to protect the United States and the vital interests (investments) of big business and to promote American values in a world of rivals, and the CIA, through all 60 years of its history, has proved to be absolutely unsuitable for the job).
6. Any country has to be involved in the sphere of our strategic interests if it has a strategic geographic position, significant sources of raw materials, a well-developed transportation system, or could be used as a military base. The strategic policy of any country rotates around the USA and if not — that means a certain President is waiting for greater incentives to come on board. Against target countries, don’t hesitate to use the strategies of pre-emptive war, post-war (post-crisis) reconstruction, and nation building (which means erasing national identity and supplanting it by liberal values).
With China’s growth , the Cold War is back with a vengeance, so we are back to secret deals based on spheres of influence — but that’s a temporary strategy.
7. You can’t always do what you want without help - you are dependent on other world leaders, Congressional positions and international public opinion. Ask the Senate to help you sometimes - believe me, they’ll be happy and proud to do so.
8. Create super-profitable conditions for big business by political penetration worldwide. Big money men start investing abroad when they find a safe environment — law and order. The more they invest the more political power they get (international corporations is the most important element of international system ; the other two are governments and non-governmental organizations).
9. Use big investors to ruin other national economies and governments by withdrawing finances when the economic situation is worsening. As soon as the country opens its financial markets, it increases its dependence on global economic processes that it cannot control; and a financial crisis can easily be staged. Conversely, other countries’ access to the US markets is a powerful economic and political tool.
10. Use my “controlled chaos strategy”. My idea to make the US economic and financial markets the most attractive for investors by provoking unstable situations in other countries and regions.
11. Send troops or work through military intelligence (not the CIA) to wherever you perceive a threat to the US investments.
12. Use pressure everywhere - strategic nuclear missiles are still the most powerful blackmail tool. Remember, if you are dealing with Russia or China, they will look not only for agreement, but for advantages.
13. Use “personal diplomacy” - phone calls to foreign leaders (every planned phone call has to go through the National Security Adviser and be well prepared, like a serious negotiation). Most important are phone calls to our allies — NATO members. Don’t forget to wish happy birthday to the leaders in person!
14. Use “informal diplomacy” – recruit politicians in other nations who might be able to give informal access to a country’s leadership. In some situations, such as between USA and China diplomacy is done through semi-formal channels using interlocutors such as academic members or think tanks. This occurs in situations when presidents wish to express intentions or to suggest methods of resolving a diplomatic situation, but do not wish to express a formal position.
15. Don’t hesitate to use summits as a tool, because:
-if you meet a foreign leader in person, you can reduce tensions and clarify national interests.
-personal relationship may lead to improved relations between nations.
-summits allow you to focus national attention on specific issues.
-presidents engaging in personal diplomacy are much more capable than career diplomatic bureaucrats of understanding the domestic policy consequences of diplomatic actions.
-summit negotiations can yield quick results, since discussions are between leaders with the power of decision rather than between representatives who must receive instructions, make reports and rely new proposals.
-diplomatic impasses may be overcome at summits by shifts in policy that only top leaders are empowered to make.
-if presidents desire an international forum for their diplomatic policies, a summit meeting can provide one.
-successful summits can enhance the image of the President and the United States
16. If you’re ready to fight for national interests, forget about human rights — you can always blame infractions on the other side.
17. Isolation is the greatest enemy to information.
18. There’s no sense in applying sanctions if big business isn’t interested.
19. Economic and hence, political progress for any country affects the USA through economic competition that threatens the market and jobs.
20. Any initiative is risky if it’s about unstable region, but you lose popularity fast if you are perceived as indecisive or weak in foreign policy.
21. Any trip abroad has to convey a strong message.
22. Direct military intrusion indicates weakness in your foreign policy. If it’s inescapable, involve as many allies as you can.
23. Don’t touch our military bases abroad!
24. Big debts open markets. No matter what, open national markets world-wide for American big business and remember - the markets, not Presidents, rule the world.
25. Tie your allies to international economic projects and make them pay most of the expenses.
26. Never talk about money in public — talk about democracy, human rights, liberal values and disarmament - people like it.
27. Move forward - transform Americans’ national and patriotic feelings into nationalistic ones (follow the French model) to get total support of your policy (see “Mind Control”).
28. Don’t pay too much attention to the CIA - all they have to do is to support you with appropriate information to justify your strategic political decisions - and nothing else.
29. Ignore the UN - Secretary General has no real power, but you can take advantage of such a thing as the UN peace-keeping if it corresponds with your interests - the US economic costs could be minimized. Besides, UN peacekeeping can promote a spirit of international accountability in solving a certain regional problem. Don’t forget to explain your strategy to the Congress - they don’t like the UN either. On the other hand, you have to manage an international crisis, if it threatens our national interests (start with strategic planning, check national security system for the adequate response, use propaganda to get domestic and international support, consult with big business and allies, start crisis negotiations if possible, use diplomacy (see below) and force or threat of force).
30. To reach global leadership you must have enough resources, national support and a well-calculated strategy (see also “Strategic planning”). As you already know, the US budget is financed by foreign lending. When the dollar goes down in foreign exchange markets, it’s supported by foreign central banks and you’re OK as long as Japan, Saudi Arabia and Germany have an interest in propping up the American economy and do not raise the price for financing America’s debt. The worst situation would be to lose support both at home and abroad
Decision making
- assessment of the international and domestic political environment
- goal setting. We have multiple foreign policy goals, and we must determine which goal is effected by the international and domestic political environment
- determination of policy options
- decision making action
- implementation of chosen policy option
World Domination
Securing the top position requires :
- economic domination
- military power - pre-emptive war or blackmail by war (seeking domination requires an inevitable increase in the military budget)
- a cultural and media invasion
- special operations to influence or neutralize leaders with negative attitude
Modern mechanism of world domination
1. If the country does not accept American rules of the game, we start a "velvet" or "colored revolution.
2. We replace the government by pro-American regime.
3. If the government resists, we start the US and NATO military operation and help the anti-government organizations to overthrow the government.
Strategies used
1.Destabilization strategy based on terrorism - you kill political leaders and civil population, blow up government buildings and blame the opposition.
2.Stabilization strategy - first, "terrorists" destabilize the situation in the country and then the US and NATO troops come to "stabilize′ it.
3."New order" or a "controlled chaos” strategy - American “new world order” to be established through the international chaos, permanent wars, civil wars and revolutions.
My definition :
"Controlled chaos” strategy –
geopolitical re-division of the world by provoking riots, revolutions, civil wars and overthrowing regimes in independent from USA sovereign states to keep the U.S. world hegemony. Political, national, religious and social conflicts in target countries have to be permanent. The strategy is being covered by a "struggle against international terrorism". The operation is preceded by information war against the target regime and backed by NATO forces if necessary.
Most important targets of the 21st century – Russia and China. That’s the reason we occupy Afghanistan. We have to circle China with our military bases in Central Asia.
4.Global energy control strategy - the US control of major oil regions and gas fields.
To keep America on top, we would have to prevent cooperation and coalitions between: China and Africa; Shi’ia and Sunni Muslims; Germany and France; Venezuela and Cuba. Their trade agreements and alliances will change the geopolitical situation.
In most important world regions keep the balance by supporting the country which follows the leader:
In Europe - support Britain to balance Germany. You rule Europe if you rule the Persian Gulf. You rule the world if you rule Europe, and that’s why you have to keep NATO by all means to block the military independence of Europe (Germany).
In East Asia - support Japan, Russia and Taiwan to balance China.
In South Asia support Pakistan to balance India.
In Latin America - support Argentina to balance Brazil.
Diplomacy secrets
1. Use secret visits (send the National Security Adviser) if the international problem is complex and important - in this way you don’t depend on media and public opinion. Afterwards you can talk, if it was a success.
2. If presidents like to drink with each other, they are ready to deal with each other.
3. Avoid negotiating on major issues at the end of the day, when your energy is low.
4. Negotiate smart, watch your initiatives. The more you tell about your position, the less your partner will tell you about himself, and the higher price you’ll pay. Diplomacy is all about money and the essence of any negotiations is the price range.
5. Any information should be exchanged as a part of a compromise and not merely given away.
6. Always talk less than necessary. Concentrate on facts and never tell other person about feelings (or your family and medical problems). Don’t interrupt others, try to understand what they really want and if they try to manipulate you. Also, resist giving in to interruptions until you have completed your thoughts – “Just a moment, I haven’t finished”. Use Taleyran approximation – if it’s difficult for you to speak up, try to make just one diplomatic statement. If they press you, insist on moving this questions to experts. And use indirect language such as “It looks like” or “You see situation from a very special angle”.
7. No negative emotions, they indicate weak nerves. Never take things personally.
8. Stop self-limiting behaviors, such as smiling too much, nodding too much, tilting your head or dropping your eyes in response to other person’s gaze. Speak normal conversational volume, don’t scream and don’t whisper, either, as you won’t be taken seriously.
9. Take a problem-solving approach to conflict, and try to see the other person as your collaborator rather than your opposition. You’d better postpone negotiations than allow them to break down.
10. Fix all questions, don’t be in a rush to answer any of them.
11. The slower you talk, the more confident you are.
12. Never ask straight questions, it’s a primitive approach.
13. It’s important to know what questions and when to ask.
Start with an “invitation” question that does not need a definite answer but opens up the discussion, like: “No matter what reporters say, we’ll start negotiating for arms control.” Proceed with “intelligence gathering” questions, like: “Are you going to abide by our last agreement on the withdrawal of military forces or do we have other options?” Go to “expertise” questions, like: “It’s 500 missiles, right? ”
There’s a difference between expertise and straight questions - straight question are like: “Will you sign the treaty?” and these have to be avoided because you’ll get no straight answer right away. Finish with a closing question, like: “I think that’s what we intend to sign? Next time we can start from here.” Or you can press your partner: “Let’s not lose this last opportunity, eh?”
14. Explain your negative attitude in a smart way: give half the information and continue, depending on your partner’s reaction. If you can’t accept his proposal, tell him that the experts may look into it again and come to agreement. If your partner is not a complete idiot he’ll understand his proposal is unacceptable (because the experts have already done all they could). But if he is an idiot, he’ll agree to “kill” his proposals by passing them to the experts.
15.You start to lose momentum if you start to defend yourself. Stop (postpone) negotiations the moment you start to lose or you could end up in a total failure and that could be used by opposition back home.
16. If you bring ideology - try to win. If you bring national interests, try to find compromise. Be flexible - that’s strength, not weakness.
17. Don’t make aggressive statements for the media, no matter what.
18. Respect is half a victory, but you usually win when your partner is scared. Avoid open confrontation and respond to personal attacks with humor.
19. Watch the military experts - they are always ready to “push” you. No arms agreement can win ratification without backing from Joint Chiefs, because Congress needs and trusts their expertise, and their disapproval is a strong tool against you in case you ignore their advice. So, think three times before you appoint Joint Chiefs.
20. Take negotiations on the trade deficit very seriously - they often take you nowhere and have zero results as your partner wants you to change your attitude to him completely as well as your international economic policy, while you expect the same favor from him. You can influence one partner but you can’t very easily influence the international system.
21. After you come back home do some positive advertising through the media - in such a way you influence other presidents and future negotiations. If the negotiations resulted in a treaty, “sell” it to the Senate for approval.
22. Negotiation no-nos:
- don’t be confused if your partner threatens you - that means he needs your cooperation. Don’t enter into negotiation right away with high demands.
- don’t touch the toughest issues first. Don’t assume - that’s a sign of weakness.
- don’t hesitate to pause or take a break.
- never say “no” to your partner’s ideas - rather, pack them up in one “package” with your proposals.
Diplomatic tricks
Tricks in diplomacy are usually used to distract your hard working team, shift the emphasis of the negotiation in order to shape the deal on terms of your adversary or manipulate your team into closing negotiation and accept terms you don’t really like. And the tricks are:
“Leap” - your adversary is losing and starts “jumping” from one point to another
“Pile” - your adversary “piles up” problems, tries to provoke a chaotic discussion or stop negotiations
“Empty chair” - a day or two before negotiations start your adversary informs you that he’s not ready yet, trying to press you (or he wants to change location)
“Diplomatic illness” – the practice of feigning illness to avoid participation in negotiations and at the same time to avoid giving formal offense.
“Deaf” - your adversary keeps asking questions instead of answering yours
“Provocation” - your adversary doubts your team’s professional level and your ability to negotiate . Don’t go crazy.
“Busy guy” - your adversary breaks negotiation for an hour or two pretending he has to do some very important business (or that he got a very important call).
“Mirror” - it’s a “programming” trick. The technology is simple: you try to “mirror” your adversary’s style and behavior, adopt a similar posture, use his gestures, and follow the speed of his speech. First, he will like it subconsciously and will be more open to you. Second, you’ll understand better his way of thinking.
“Sandwich” - pressure (often - military) - negotiations - pressure
“Show” - using certain arguments your adversary appeals to your emotions
“Circle” - a very sophisticated trick: your adversary tries to “push” his proposal in different variants and finally comes back to his initial variant, trying to convince you that’s the best choice
“Carrot and stick” - threat (blackmail) plus promises (money). The guy could blackmail you also by demanding to set a deadline
“Student” - your adversary talks too much about the details, asking a lot of minor questions, trying to make you nervous and make mistakes
“Donkey” – your adversary declines the offer to speak first
“Ball” - encourage your adversary if he’s looking for “global decisions” and he’ll do a lot of minor favors
“Rubber” - delay, if you can’t predict the result, and press your adversary by delaying the answer
“Last train” - you can press your adversary by an ultimatum right before negotiations are over, if he really is interested in some result. “Spice” the ultimatum with some important reasons and give your adversary a choice of variants.
You can also leak opposing demands to the media (be careful with this one. Do not betray diplomatic trust by talking about secret deals or demands that actually have been mentioned). You may also escalate your demands during negotiation and manipulate public opinion to line up behind your demands.
Negotiations Procedure
I. Preparation
1. Write a plan.
2. Define your objectives.
3. Identify issues that are open to compromise and those that are not.
4. Conduct research for information to support your objectives and have information to undermine your partner’s position; think what information is available to your partner (State and Defense Departments will help you with that; not the CIA).
5. Find out how your partner negotiates with other leaders (he might have a “rabbit in a hat” for you).
6. Consult with members of a previous negotiating team about his style, strong and weak points.
7. Check the current balance of power. Attention: if you start multilateral negotiation you have to know what are the conflicts or allegiances between other partners. If they are divided into groups, identify who has the power to make a decision on behalf of a group.
8. Use game theory if you are intending to cooperate. Game theory is a theoretical analysis of the decision-making process taken by two or more players who are in conflict. You must actually estimate any possible strategies of the players who have to make decisions without knowledge of what other players are planning. Each player’s strategy, once undertaken, will affect the others. Game theory is often illustrated by the “prisoners dilemma” paradigm. It supposes that two men have been arrested on a suspicion of committing a crime together and are being held in separate cells. There is not enough evidence to prosecute unless one confesses and implicates the other. Both of them know this but cannot talk to each other. The dilemma is that the best outcome, not being convicted, is only available if they each trust the other not to implicate him. If X decides to trust Y, but Y fears X may not be trustworthy, Y may confess to get a lesser sentence; X then gets a worse one. The best solution to this dilemma is for both to cooperate, to minimize the worst that can happen, rather than trying for the outcome that is maximum. This is called the minimax strategy and it’s classified as being the most probable outcome.
II. Conducting negotiations
Never conduct negotiations before 10 a.m. or after 4 p.m.
First of all, you have to decide whether you want to speak first or to respond to your partner’s proposal. There’s an advantage in letting your partner make the opening proposal as it might be much more beneficial for you than you suspect.
a) put forward a proposal (with as little emotion as possible). You have to make your initial offer-demand high and compromise from that point onward. Your partner will understand perfectly well it’s too much, so make your initial demand greater than you expect to receive, and offer less than you are expected to give. (For the same reason feel free to reject the first proposal received.) While talking further, leave yourself room for maneuvering, presenting your proposals, and don’t try to pin down your partner to a fixed position too soon, because he needs room to maneuver, too. Make a final offer when the atmosphere is most cooperative.
b) respond to proposals in a smart way (again, no emotions). Never take the first offer – if you take it, your adversary may feel there is something wrong with it or he didn’t get the best deal. Capture any similarities on both sides. Don’t hesitate to make conditional counter-offers: “If you do this, we’ll do that.” Cut the unexpected introduction of new issues and follow strictly a concise step-by-step agenda. Probe your partner’s attitudes: “What would you say if we both lower our demands?” but indicate that every concession you make is a major loss to you. Ask as many questions as you want - the more information you have, the more you control negotiation. To think over and re-design your strategy, ask for a break as many times as it’s acceptable. Summarize your partner’s proposals.
c) move towards a bargain. You must know perfectly well the response to each of your points before you open your mouth. If your aides can’t help you, you have the wrong aides and you even might be a wrong president. Offer the lowest price first, as you may not need to go any further. Negotiate a “package,” don’t concentrate on one demand and link other, smaller demands to it. While making a final offer look at the other party and check the body language (see below), your team members must confirm by body language that this is your final offer. It’s OK to press the partner by emphasizing the need to reach agreement, like: “We know our nations are waiting to see the treaty signed.” (If your partner looks at his watch, it means he wants to end the talk.) If you see you are approaching a dead end, ask your partner to talk off the record, in private, but if you talk in private, you have to keep your word no matter what.
Sometimes negotiations (as in the Israel-Palestine case) run into serious problems and breakdowns. Strong diplomats never say “never” and never leave forever, and always are ready to come back and agree right away on new dates to continue talks, as though a breakdown is just one more pressure trick. The best thing to do is to re-establish communications as soon as possible and you have to do this through your team member who has good connections and influence with other party. Act fast, especially if the consequences of “no deal” would be worse than the last deal that was on the table. If the situation is not improving, you have nothing else but to use a mediator. I do not recommend you to take responsibility as mediator or to use a mediator for your diplomatic needs. International experience shows that these old and “experienced” people usually make the situation worse, like bringing in a lawyer — even if the situation looks better for the next couple of years. But if you have no choice and your partner, and your aides insist on using a mediator to resolve the situation you have to think it over … and agree.
Mediation is the process in which deadlocked parties consider the suggestions of a third party, agreed upon in advance, but are not bound to accept the mediator’s recommendations. The mediator works as a referee between the negotiating parties and tries to find common ground among their agendas. Once some common ground is established, the mediator can begin to look for mutually acceptable ways out of the deadlock. A mediator between presidents has to be a president himself, very influential, and well informed on the situation to be able to make effective recommendations.
He has to:
a) consider the situation from all angles
b) help both parties to understand each other better
c) help the parties to create new approaches
d) suggest a solution, give alternatives
But if the two sides’ demands are too far apart, no outside party can bring them together at all. ( Often a mediator has to make multiple trips between two parties, who do not talk directly, and it’s called shuttle diplomacy. Usually, two parties do not formally recognize each other, but still want to negotiate. The term became widespread following Henry Kissinger’s term as National Security Adviser and then, as the United States Secretary of State (in 1973-1977), when he participated in shuttle diplomacy in the Middle East and China).
III. Closing negotiation
That’s the most important part, a final mutual agreement or disagreement, a test for your foreign policy making strategy and tactics and personally for you, your power and your image. Any treaty you sign with foreign leaders, if it meets American interests, is not your personal success, but that of the nation. There are three options:
a) the agreement with all conditions is acceptable to both parties
b) the agreement is acceptable to one party only
c) the agreement is unacceptable for both parties
Diplomatic Double Talk
Statement Meaning
We are disappointed. We got nothing.
Situation disturbs us. It’s unacceptable.
There are still differences between There are huge differences.
our approaches .
We can’t accept this deal. This means trouble.
We reserve the right to use any means
to prevent further worsening of the situation. This means war.
Discussion helped us to understand each
other better. We’ve wasted our time.
We don’t understand your attitude. Stop it immediately.
I’m trying to understand your position. Understand me too, idiot!
If I’ve understood you correctly, you don’t agree. Do you have any other option?
We’ll pay a very high price if we don’t
reach agreement. Yes, that’s a threat !
Chapter 5. Espionage management
Spy Code
1. No mercy, no ideology, no emotions.
2. Intuition is nothing but the ability to watch and analyze.
3. No evidence is evidence in itself.
4. Distrust is a mother of security.
5. Never look as if you are sizing up the person - that’s a sign that gives away cops and spies.
6. Don’t start first if you don’t know the rules.
7. The way you act is the way you think - behavior is a system of codes (information) which could be calculated by the enemy. Watch your face - that’s a shop window.
8. Think fast, talk slow.
9. Avoid self-programming and never think bad about yourself.
10. Don’t smoke, drink or take drugs if it’s not necessary; spare your stomach from very hot or cold food or drinks; avoid too much noise and light.
11. Don’t be shy to lie - the more you lie the more people respect you.
12. Let people talk out and “empty their brains” - then load your information.
13. People never change - everybody wants to get pleasure and avoid pain.
14. “He knew too much” means “He talked too much.”
15. Never ask extra questions - wait. Wait and the object will get used to you and open himself - nobody can stay tense for long.
16. Lonely people live longer in espionage business.
17. “No exit” situation is the one you don’t like or don’t understand.
18. Avoid:
- personal enemies (they fix negative information on you)
- silent types (they notice and think too much)
- other professionals (they’ll blow your identity)
- extra stress (it damages your heart and blood vessels and that kills your brain and your ability to think )
- talking too much
19. The best weapon against your enemy is his enemy.
20. “I want nothing” means “I want everything”.
21. Small lie gives birth to big distrust.
How to run assets
You can get tons of information through technical devices but no device can influence decisions made by leaders of other countries. That’s why for thousands of years to come, a reliable agent will be the top tool of any special service, and their actual names have to be kept secret forever, please. A VIP agent (a top government employee) is a very rare thing and depends hugely on luck, because he can make or influence big political decisions. If he has access to the Oval Office, he can change the President’s plans and strategy, and can sabotage political, economic or military actions. When major presidential initiatives fail, time after time, one might wonder who is sabotaging whom.
The most important thing a secret source can get is a reliable information on any possible attempt on the US President’s life, or concerning a decision of a foreign government to start a war against the United States. A professional agent is actually is both an instrument (to get information) and a weapon (to influence or neutralize people).
A."Garbage" (60%), the "no trust " category.
Recruitment is #1 priority for the officer and a part of his working plan and very often he has to recruit people who are not born agents. You can work with a nice guy, teach him, pay him, press him — and he still avoids any cooperation (busy, sick, on vacation, etc.). It’s hard to get rid of him because, first, you have to explain to your superiors why you recruited garbage and second, there’s a rule: if you want to be very smart and innovative, a reformer, who came here to start intelligence revolution and get rid of a passive agent, recruit an active one first. Also, agents who work under pressure (blackmail) sooner or later slide into this category.
B. Good agents (30%), middle category. They adhere to the rules of discipline and keep the schedule (that’s very important even if there’s no information), deliver a lot of information that you have to verify through other sources, but don’t show much initiative. Used for regular espionage: go and talk to the object, copy documents, make a recording, take pictures, listen, watch. You can trust them and check often, anyway.
C. Born agents (10%). You are very lucky if you can recruit such people. They betray their country with pleasure and sometimes do not even ask for money because it’s in their character — they are looking for adventure or are not happy with their personal or professional life and seek improvement or revenge. They take risks, have good analytical abilities, good education, make (VIP) connections easily, "crack" any object, play the "good guy" whom you can trust. Sometimes they come to you as volunteers, and if they bring valuable stuff - recruit them
Special category. Women.
Women are a special category here, as elsewhere, and the rule is: if you can’t recruit a real agent, you recruit a woman. It’s not professional to recruit a woman for a serious operation, but if you want to get to an important object, a woman can introduce you. OK, you can recruit a US Senator’s secretary or a typist from the Pentagon, but it will be on your conscience if she gets caught. Such cases entail a life sentence, usually — how would you feel? Besides, women often fall in love with their objects and tell them everything. Finally, a married woman is much bigger problem than a married man.
Recruit a small number of well-informed people. Do not recruit:
- psychos
- volunteers (unless it’s a "mole" or other government employee who brings you top secret information right away. In a counter-intelligence set-up, a "volunteer" will try to get information about you, telling the minimum about himself.)
- persons with low educational and intellectual level
- people under 30 or over 70, unless it’s a VIP. (Did someone get Jim Baker? Dick Cheney?)
- mafia members
- people who are happy with their lives and careers
The best formula when you recruit is a mix of money and ideology (brainwashing). It’s not necessary to sign recruitment obligations — people take that as a blackmail tool. It’s enough if the fellow brings a good piece of information and get paid (make a video, anyway).
Recruitment Pyramid
Priority recruitment candidates in the USA:
The White House staff
The Cabinet and federal agencies
The US Congress
Big corporations
Big scientific institutions
Local politicians
VIP world (celebrities - big media, show biz, big sport)
Candidates for recruitment
1. All spies who work in the USA under legal "cover" as diplomats, reporters, scientists, businessmen, actors, artists, musicians, sportsmen have the legal right to make and develop any contacts and invite people to private parties; then they "transfer" these contacts to professional recruiters. Any embassy can invite any politician to official and private parties and "work" with him there. Besides, all those people can invite prospective candidates to their countries or to other country to develop the contact; it’s much easier to recruit abroad. And remember, any contact, any talk, any piece of biography is already information.
2. You can get information about candidates through other agents and through the media.
3. It’s useful to install listening devices in the government buildings or listen to the phones, and collect compromising information on politicians. I recommend listening to the phones all over the city, if it’s the capital of the country.
"Golden" rules.
1. Do not tell the agent about problems and mistakes of the agency, about your personal problems, about other agents, about his own file and compromising information you have on him.
2. Don’t show him any classified documents - you might provoke him to sell the information to somebody else.
3. Don’t trust your agents too much; they can use you to compromise their personal enemies.
4. Never criticize the source - be an adviser. Don’t talk straight if he avoids cooperation or brings you garbage - just reduce or stop payments, or get rid of him.
5. You lose the agent if you don’t pay him for a job well done, ask him to "produce" fake information (to show your bosses how much great espionage activity you have going on) or if you don’t care about his personal security and his personal problems (health, career). And — never give poison to your agent for security reasons.
Questioning the source
This is of extreme importance - the right question brings you the right answer and top secret info. Give your agent a chance to tell and show you everything he’s brought, no matter how chaotic the story might be or how ordinary the documents look. Don’t make written notices. Don’t bring written questions even if you are talking about some advanced technology — look and be professional. Don’t let the agent analyze the information before he talks to you and don’t let him bring it in a written form - it’s usually not complete; he can lose it; or it may be stolen from him. If there are documents, he has to bring a microfilm. Ask questions — when? where? what happened? why? what’s going to happen next?
After that you tell the story back to him and he adds details. At the end of the meeting give the agent another task and don’t ask him to bring you "something," because he’ll bring you just that "something" and nothing else.
Remember, questioning is not interrogation; do not bring another officer to the meeting because it will look like cross interrogation.
Teaching the source
Teach your agent to:
- follow security rules while talking to people, working with the documents and especially meeting the officer (some foreign agencies practice open contacts with many people, hoping that the meeting with the agent won’t attract much attention — I don’t recommend that)
- always stay calm in stressful situations
- always keep discipline and come in time
- use analytic abilities working with people and documents - ask yourself as many questions as you can
Checking the source
You can never be sure you are not working with a "double agent," even if he brings you top secret stuff. Besides, agents are human beings and they make mistakes — they forget about security, spend too much money, talk too much and ask extra questions; if arrested they may not play the hero but will tell everything. Anyway, you can check your source:
a. by fake arrest followed by severe interrogation.
b. through provocation (tell him you know about his "double game" and watch his behavior after the meeting (it’s good to have a listening device or a camera in his house).
c. by making an analysis of all the information and documents he delivers and comparing it with information from other sources.
d. through other agents.
e. through your "mole" in counter-intelligence (if you’re lucky).
f. through technical devices (reading the mail, listening to the phone, secret searching his house and office, watching him through hidden cameras, trying surveillance in the street).
Agent termination (one-way ticket)
It doesn’t happen often but you have to know some special situations when you have to terminate the agent:
1. He knows too much (talks too much) and is ready to betray you.
2. VIP agent (politician) is under suspicion and you can’t help him for political reasons (diplomatic, international scandal, etc.) — in such a case an accident could be staged. It happens that the agent is too close to President.
3. Agent was involved in special operations (murders) and is dangerous as a witness.
4. Agent is trying to blackmail you.
5. You need to press (blackmail) other agents.
Special Influence Methods
1. Tortures
Torture is a category of methods of interrogation designed to shock, hurt and humiliate the object and get information or to make him do something (if used for blackmail). Points to remember:
-ongoing torture decreases pain sensitivity
-people with strong will power take torture as a test
-resistance to torture is often a form of hysterics after arrest
-the object could take himself as a martyr if you torture him too much
-torture could damage object’s psyche and you won’t be able to work with him (that’s why we keep terrorists in Guantanamo Bay without trial – we turn them into idiots)
-people usually trust "after torture information" more than voluntary confessions
-there are different types of torture and professionals often combine them
Techniques of psychological torture include:
- fake execution
- complete isolation ("wall therapy")
- daylight deprivation
- forcible narcotics addiction. Here you can use depressants, stimulants, opiates or hallucinogens : depressants (alcohol, barbiturates, antianxiety drugs
with effects of euphoria, tension reduction, , muscle relaxation, drowsiness; stimulants (cocaine, amphetamine, methamphetamine (crystal meth), with effects of fast
euphoria, exhilaration, high physical and mental energy, reduced appetite, perceptions of power , and sociability; hallucinogens with effects of euphoria, hallucinations, distorted perceptions and sensations
-making the object observe others being tortured (such as family members)
-abuse of object’s national, religious feelings or political views)
The effects of psychological torture are: anxiety, depression, fear, psychosis, difficulty concentrating, communication disabilities, insomnia, impaired memory, headaches, hallucinations, sexual disturbances, destruction of self-image, inability to socialize
Techniques of physical torture include:
-food, water, sleep deprivation
-damage to vital body organs (brain, lungs, kidneys, liver, private parts) plus electric shock. The brain is particularly dependent on a continuous and stable supply of oxygen and glucose.
-face deformation
-water cure ( the torturer pours water down the throat of the subject to inflict the terror of drowning. In another variation, the subject is tied or held don in a chair, his face is covered with a cloth or plastic sheet, and water is poured slowly or quickly over his face to encourage him to talk
The effects of physical torture are: extreme (unbearable) pain, hypertension, fatigue, cardiopulmonary and other disorders, brain atrophy.
2. Special psychology
1. "Brain washing" (implantation of new ideas). The process is: isolation from outside world ("information vacuum") — sleep and food limitation (very effective) — "bombing" with slogans – ideological aggression – achieving the result (brain is loaded). The object is now ready to brainwash newcomers.
2. "Behavior modification" (by placing into a group). The process is: initial contact — introduction to a group — mutual interests — mutual activity–mutual ideas — control and prevention of any negative contacts outside the group. No rush, no pressure.
3. Special psychotherapy methods: talk + drugs + blondes + alcohol (used for recruitment)
Attention: An alcoholic is more impulsive, untrustful and unreliable; he demonstrates a poverty of ideas and incapacity for attention. He usually has serious personality maladjustments. He’s immature, insecure, oversensitive and anxious. Without alcohol he’s unable to meet and enjoy people socially, and suffers from marked feeling of inferiority. Besides, alcoholics suffer from vitamin B1 deficiency, which leads to anatomic changes in the central nervous system and heart with symptoms like anorexia, fatigability, and sleep disturbances. Other common symptoms are irritability, poor memory, inability to concentrate, heart pain.
4. "Transfer" (the object is placed in a regular hospital and then he’s transferred to a mental health clinic or jail). In jail you can use such methods an accelerated work schedule (to exhaust the object), turning him into a number to traumatize his psyche, physical punishment or a threat of punishment to keep the object tense and depressed; senseless labor to destroy his personality. Remember: the lower the intellectual level of the object, the more aggressive he is and more sensitive to incentive or punishment.
You can actually re-organize any object’s behavior by combining rewards and punishments, exposing him to feared situations and teaching him an instinct of a total (political) obedience.
Imprisonment is a very strong (sometimes — ultimate) tool. My friend who spent 10 years in jail described the changes in his behavior like this:
1st year - aggression as self-defense method (to survive)
2nd year - less personal tension, attempts to adapt the mind and body to the new, isolated way of life
3rd, 4th, 5th - gaining some inside status
6th, 7th - life in jail looks like natural routine
10th - euphoria
3. Blackmail
Used to force a person to do something (or stop the action) against his will; it’s used also for recruitment. Blackmail methods include:
1. Leaking "dirt" on the object through media
2. Creating problems in his personal life and career
3. Straight blackmail (threatening to make public certain compromising facts about him)
4. Placing weapons, drugs, secret documents in object’s house or office, followed by search and arrest
5. Accusations of rape (robbery) (use hookers for that)
6. Blackmail by pressing family members. Careful, object may commit suicide after intense blackmail, especially if he is an intellectual
Murders technologies
Shooting, explosives or poison (cyanides, curare). Use a sniper or a "mouse" car (loaded with explosives and parked on the object’s route) if access to the object is impossible because of high security. Anyway, the murder is obvious and investigation is inevitable.
General scheme.
The best thing to do is to recruit or " install" somebody with access to the object’s security system and get information on his schedule (plus health and habits), places where he likes to relax. Try to gain access to his phone. Then prepare the plan and train three groups: surveillance (with optics and radios), action (includes snipers, explosives technicians or staged accidents specialists), and security (these people neutralize bodyguards, witnesses and other people who could interrupt the action; they complete the action if the action group fails; and they can neutralize the action group later, if planned so; they "cover" the safe retreat of action group and "cut" the chase).
For some operations you can modify the ammunition to make it more deadly – hollow cuts in the tip of the bullets will cause the lead to fragment upon impact, making a huge exit hole. You reach same effect using bullets with a drop of mercury in a hollow tip and you can also coat bullets with arsenic or cyanide. Use depleted, non-radioactive uranium bullets (uranium is much heavier than lead – it can be used to make a bullet with a smaller slug and a larger portion of explosive). Teflon bullets are good because with Teflon’s antifriction characteristics they pierce bullet proof vests.
Staged accidents (suicides, catastrophes, drowning or fall, robbery or rape followed by murder, technical accident (fire, electricity, gas), drugs, weapons, poison, explosives misuse. Also, staged natural death (stroke, heart attack, chronic illness as a result of using special technical devices like irradiation).
" Illegal " spies
When I talk about “the best,” I mean the highest intelligence level — illegal spies, intelligence operatives who are secretly deployed abroad and covertly operate there under assumed names and well-documented cover stories, masquerading as native citizens. It′s very important if you get , for example, original birth certificate of American citizen, who died (at young age preferably) or any records and documents on him(birth, wedding, death, any IDs, etc) .
The process of training and “penetration” of the officer is rather complex and includes:
a) Special training. Foreign language, general, political and special (espionage and counter-espionage) knowledge of the target country; personal cover story — new biography, special technical devices, recruitment methods). Up to three years.
b) Illegal probation period abroad. A trip abroad through intermediate countries with numerous changes of passports and cover stories, jobs, personal connections. Then he gets to the target country, stays there for another 1-2 years and goes back to his country for additional training and correction of cover story — actually, it’s his first combat assignment. The most important part of this assignment is to check the reliability of the cover story and documents; the cover story has to be reinforced with new and old true facts, like short-term studies at universities or professional training courses).
c) Intermediate legislation. On his way back the officer could stay in an intermediate country for another 1-2 years, make contacts with business, scientists, government employees, celebrities.
d) Basic legislation. Officer comes to the target country, obtains genuine documents, gets a job which allows him to travel and talk to many people, recruit informants thus creating an illegal station.
The illegal is usually supplied with a variety of cover documents to make him “invisible” for counter-intelligence — some are used only to cross the borders on the way to a target country, others — to live there, other documents — only for travel to “third countries” to meet with officers of legal or illegal stations or to be used in case of urgent recall to home country (in that case the illegal is supposed to transit at least two or three countries). His further activity depends on how professional counter-espionage service is working in the country.
He could fail in his mission also because of:
- poor training and low quality documents
- neglecting security rules.
- one mistake in pronunciation can give you away
- treason (traitor-informant or a “mole” inside his own service)
- low personal security level (while working with sources)
If we talk about "legal plants", KGB (and modern Russian SVR) loves to recruit Harvard, Yale and Columbia students and "push" them to the top of American politics – US Congress, the White House, the Cabinet.
Coup d′etat
Coups, like war, are one of the most violent tools of special services and one could be artificially staged in a target country by “feeding” and “pushing” the political opposition or by using VIP agents in the government. Most coups are “Bureaucratic,” and entail mainly a change of leader, usually by person #2. That person might be the trigger or might be induced to practice “passive sabotage” and allow certain others to take over. It is also an example of political engineering. Coups usually use the power of the existing government for its own takeover.
Conditions for a successful coup:
-the army is supportive or at least neutral (a coup usually involves control of some active
-portion of the military while neutralizing the remainder of the armed services)
-the leader is out of town (vacation, visit abroad) or is ill
-a political or economic crisis.
-opponents fail to dislodge the plotters, allowing them to consolidate their position, obtain the surrender or acquiescence of the populace, and claim legitimacy
Military coup
Changing a civilian government to a military one, usually in developing countries.
Conditions: a long-term political and economic crisis that threatens national security and the unity of the country. Military chief(s) eventually let the people elect a civilian president and form a civilian government after “re-construction” of political and economic systems. They usually leave for themselves the right to control further political process.
A good example is the attempt of anti-Nazi officers to assassinate Hitler in a coup. On July 20, 1944, Colonel Claus Schenk von Stauffenberg brought a bomb-laden suitcase into a briefing room where Hitler was holding a meeting. The bomb exploded and several persons were killed. Hitler was wounded, but his life was saved when the suitcase was unwittingly moved away by someone. Hitler was shielded from the blast by the conference table, leaving him with minor injuries. Subsequently about 5,000 people were arrested by the Gestapo and about 200,including Stauffenberg, were executed in connection with attempt, some on the very same day (which means that Himmler was involved and knew perfectly well about the coup).
“Democratic” coup
A democratic coup would be a change of the government by the most aggressive (nationalistic) political party.
-artificial or actual government crisis
-mass anti-government propaganda
-organized “democratic” movement all over the country
-provoked mass protests (10,000 participants and up) and civil disobedience actions
To provoke a mass anti-government meeting you have to bring to the place well-trained group of agitators (bring as many as you can), and they will inevitably attract an equal number of curious persons who seek adventures and emotions, as well as those unhappy with the government (unemployed people, young and old, are usually very supportive). Arrange transportation of the participants to take them to meeting places in private or public vehicles. Design placards, flags and banners with different radical slogans or key words; prepare flyers, pamphlets (with instructions for the participants), posters and signs (to make the concentration more noticeable). It’s good if you place a surveillance team on the top floors of the nearby buildings – they will report any changes in the event; have also messengers to transmit your orders. Remember, if you clash with police and military and a participant(s) is being killed, the conflict inflames right away. Your people can also infiltrate the spontaneous anti-government meeting and turn it into a mass radical demonstration with fights and incidents. Key agitators (with security attached to them) have to be dispersed and stand by placards, signs, lampposts; they have to avoid places of disturbances, once they have provoked them.
-the leader of the meeting must be protected by a ring of bodyguards (they protect him from police or help him to escape).
-government buildings must be “covered” by a blockade
“Democratic” nationalistic coups in Ukraine (2004 and 2014), so-called “orange revolution”. CIA gave the nationalists my instruction and followed them absolutely: acts of civil disobedience, strikes, sit-ins (in the central square), aggressive propaganda, mass demands to re-vote the presidential election, clashes with police.
A change of government and political and economic systems by political gangsters, usually fed, pushed, incited, and possibly funded and equipped by the secret services of another country. (Even the American Revolution would not have succeeded without French military advisors and financial support.) Government buildings are blockaded, the government isolated, all communications and transportation systems captured, government media closed, new government formed.
-political and economic crisis
-mass anti-government propaganda (in the army too)
-provoked mass protests and civil disobedience actions
-terror and urban guerillas
The current government assumes extraordinary powers not allowed by the legislation. It often happens when the president takes control of the legislative and judicial powers.
 Actual espionage is not what you see in the movies and you have absolutely no chance of evasion if a real professional surveillance crew is following you. Why? Because they use multiple methods and mixed methods.
. Physical surveillance.
"One line" - officers follow the object forming a line behind him and passing him one by one.
"Two lines" - officers form two lines on both sides of the street.
"Circle" - officers block the area and start searching (used in case they lose the object).
"Fork" - one officer (a car) moves in front of the object, another one - behind, other officers (cars) move along parallel streets
"Box" - used when the object enters supermarket, hotel, restaurant. One or two officers follow the object, the others wait for him at the exits.
"Demonstration" - officers demonstrate their presence to press the object and lower his activity.
"Provocation" - officers attack the object, beat him, steal (secret) documents. Often used to lower his activity if he’s trying to play James Bond.
"Outstrip" - officers do not follow the object because they know exactly where he’s going.
"Football" - officers pass the object to each other (car — a group — bicyclist — car…)
"Movie" - the crew watches the object in stages: first day — to the subway only, second day — from subway to his office, etc. (used abroad). The crew has to have a female member if they are watching a woman (she could use the ladies room for a secret meeting) and members of various ethnicities (white, black, Latino) because the object could go to a specific ethnic area.
If you’re the object and you’ve noticed surveillance:
Don’t rush, move at the same speed.
Relax at the nearest bar (and relax the crew).
Don’t show how professional you are by trying to disappear, otherwise they could intensify surveillance or even neutralize you (smash your car, beat you up).
Postpone the operation you were engaged in .
Use a "draught" if you need to see your agent no matter what. Change lanes (if you are driving), stop the car and then drive left or right.
If you don’t see surveillance, that means either there’s no surveillance or you’ve failed in counter-surveillance. Discreetly watch the agent who’s coming to meet you and try to detect any possible surveillance; or you may have been "outstripped."
Surveillance crew mistakes:
The same crew follows the object all day long.
The object "rules" the crew and calculates it (he moves faster — the crew moves faster).
A crew member is too noticeable (unusual dress, haircut, disabled parts of the body, too fat or too skinny, too ugly or too pretty).
The crew starts to search possible hiding places for espionage evidence right after the object leaves (and he may be watching).
The crew leaves traces after a secret search of the object’s house (office).
The crew does not report its mistakes or the fact that they’ve lost the object.
The crew is not professional (using childish tricks like jumping out of a subway train just before the doors close).
Technical Surveillance
1. Visual surveillance. Done through special holes in the ceilings and walls, through the windows from the opposite building (car) or by installing the camera inside the house (you can substitute something, like a clock, for the same thing but "stuffed" with a camera or recorder.) You can use informant as well to watch the object outside his house (especially if you want to do a secret search).
2. Listening devices. The easiest thing is to listen to the object’s phone (record all calls, including those dialed "by mistake"). If you work inside his apartment, make sure you equip the room where he usually talks. Attention: avoid widespread mistake when your agent keeps the listening device on his body; install a miniature device in his clothes or shoes, because the object could try a test and ask the agent to take off his clothes or invite him to the sauna or pool.
3. If you are working abroad, listen 24/7 to local counterintelligence surveillance radiofrequencies.
4. Reading the mail. When you control the object’s mail, remember he could use multiple addresses and PO boxes. Open all the letters with no return address or PO box. Watch when you open the letter — the object could leave a tiny piece of paper, hair, etc. to check if anybody opened the letter. Analyze the text carefully — there could be a cipher or the words with double meaning (jargon), especially when you read mafia mail.
5. Combination of above-mentioned methods
Spies Identification
If a spy is an intelligence officer working abroad under "cover" (diplomat, businessman, reporter) you can identify him by:
- following the careers of all diplomats who work at your enemy’s embassies all over the world
- recruiting a "mole" inside the intelligence service (or inside the station)
- setting up your agent for recruitment by the enemy’s station
- watching foreigners who try to make discreet contacts with native citizens with access to secrets
- making a model of a spy (professional behavior, attempts to detect surveillance, attempts to recruit sources or just get any classified information during normal meetings, "throwing away" money trying to get access to government employees, military and scientific circles)
- using secret surveillance and listening devices inside the station and practicing secret searches
If a spy is an intelligence officer working in your country under "cover" of a native citizen (or he is recruited by a native citizen) you identify him by making a model (contacts with identified spies — that’s often the only sign which points out a spy, and that’s why surveillance is very important in getting information from a "mole"). CIA “mole” and KGB intelligence officer V.Martynov arrested at Moscow airport, 1987.
CIA “mole” and KGB intelligence officer V.Martynov arrested at Moscow airport, 1987. Later he was executed.
A "mole" is a spy inside the government, recruited or "installed" most often within the special services, by an outside government/agency. The 3 most dangerous things a "mole" can do:
1. Calculate President’s plans and decisions judging by information he’s asking for.
2. Manipulate information being sent to President, and thus influence global political decisions
3. Paralyze to some extent the government (if he’s CIA or FBI Director)
Methods to detect a "mole":
A. Use index cards (special file) — never use computers to save this information!
Prepare a file on each officer and mark there the signs of a "mole" — has or spends too much money, asks too many extra questions; uses professional skills to check for physical and technical surveillance; has discreet contacts with foreigners; discreet copying of top secret documents; attempts to get a job in most secret departments; talks with close friends and family members about the possibility of making money as a "mole"; behavior deviations — extra suspiciousness, excitement, depression, drugs or alcohol addiction. Three signs are enough to start an investigation — the "triangulation" principle.
B. Use provocation. If a prospective "mole" is looking for a contact with the enemy and is ready to betray, and you have exact information, organize such a "meeting" for him. Do not arrest the person right away — play along, as he may give you connections to other people who are ready to betray. There’s one more provocation method: you supply the suspects with "highly classified information" and just watch what they do.
C. Use "filter" or "narrowing the circle." Include all the officers you suspect in a "circle" and narrow it until one name is left as the most likely suspect.
D. Make a "model" of a "mole," judging by information you have on him.
E. Recruit an insider. Recruit a "mole" inside your enemy’s intelligence service and he’ll help you to find the one inside yours (it’s called "grabbing the other end of a thread").
F. Don’t trust anybody.
What to do if you’ve detected a "mole"
- assess the damage
- restrict his access to classified information and start "feeding" him with fake data
- stop all operations he was involved in and create the illusion they are still in progress
- bring home officers and agents who work abroad and had contacts with him and those to whose files he had access
- start 24/7 surveillance if you’ve decided to play the game and look into his contacts
- arrest the "mole" discreetly (if you want to continue the game)
Effective methods to prevent treason do not exist.
How to cover your "mole"
There are special methods to cover your own "mole" and a "switch" is the most effective — it’s when you "switch" counterintelligence to other, innocent persons who work with the "mole." You can try information "leaks" through a "double agent" — it looks like you receive top secret information through another traitor or by breaking the electronic security systems. Or you can try information "leak" through publications in big newspapers — it looks like information is not secret and is known to many people or there’s another "mole."
Special Strategies
Every operation demands a set of original methods, especially if we are talking about strategic intelligence. I give you a few examples.
1. "Domino" or "chain reaction." A coup, revolution or civil war in one country provokes the same actions in other countries (neighbors). It doesn′t matter what country is going to be next, most important – what country is a target.
2. "False flag". The planned, but never executed, 1962 Operation Northwoods plot by the U.S. administration for a war with Cuba involved scenarios such as hijacking a passenger plane and blaming it on Cuba.
3. "Sliding" strategy. Transformation of a secret operation into an open one: support of illegal opposition/coup.
4. "Restriction." You damage (limit) international and economic connections (projects) of the enemy.
5. "Monopoly." Special operation to keep country’s monopoly or status as economic leader or special (nuclear) holder, or high tech producer. Includes actions to restrict the attempts of other countries to get strategic raw materials and modern weapons and technologies.
6. "Reverse effect." The government declares a certain goal and launches a military or special operation, but the result is something quite different, possibly opposite. Examples: instead of separating (ethnic) group "A" from group "B" both of them are being exterminated; instead of peace and democracy in a certain region, power is being concentrated in one group and the opposition is being exterminated.
7. "Clash." You "clash" the government and opposition of a target country and support civil war until the country is ruined and you get it for free.
8. "Salami-slice strategy". It’s a process of threats and alliances used to overcome opposition. It includes the creation of several factions within the opposing political party, and then dismantling that party from inside, without causing the "sliced" sides to protest.
9. "Positive shock." A domestic operation; to save the government during a crisis, special service provokes artificial civil conflict or sabotage, imitation (terror), and the government takes care of the "problem."
10. "Controlled crisis export" (see "Foreign Policy")
11. "Sanitation border." "Fencing" the target country by enemies (neighbors).
12. "Alibi." You build a "chain" of evidence (witnesses) and move the investigation to a dead end.
13. "Passive sabotage." A very effective strategy used to cover up a major action like the assassination of a President or the destruction of several office towers. You just "do not see the bad guys" who are going to kill the President or blow up the city. In any case you win — the perpetrators are not sure you are watching them; you can arrest them if the object survives or liquidate them once the object is dead. You don’t need a big conspiracy, you just give the order to ignore certain people until their plan materializes.
14. "Special tour." You help the target country to "build democratic institutions" (the government and local administrations) by sending official crews to help. Actually, they rule the country and that’s a "hidden occupation."
15. "Mask." You mask your actual global plans (reforms) by another big action (war).
16. Illegal espionage operations. Very dangerous , because illegal spy is playing born American and can make career in business, becoming #1 Pentagon supplier or in the government, getting to the Congress or even White House.
Chapter 6. Counterespionage management
"Golden rules"
1. Don’t die a hero – that’s bad planning, poor training and lack of experience; the dead man goes to a hall of shame and stupidity. Bad planning is an operational failure; once things have gone off track it is far more complicated to achieve the objective. Multi-step complex operations come from the fantasies of bureaucrats who watch too many movies. Keep it simple if you want to get it right.
2. Never provoke people to break the law – that’s not professional.
3. Always look for insider if it’s about sophisticated operation (bank robbery, etc.).
- secure and examine carefully the crime scene (every person who enters the scene is a potential destroyer of physical evidence)
- record the scene (make photos, sketches, notes with detailed written description of the scene with the location of evidences recovered)
- collect physical evidences (blood, semen, saliva, hair, documents, drugs, weapons and explosives, poisonous substances, fingerprints, traces, soils and minerals, fiber) and package everything
- collect confessions and eyewitnesses accounts and then
- make a plan of investigation and correct it later
- research similar crimes and criminals involved
- make a model (profile) of the suspect
- analyze expertise data
- work with secret sources
- cooperate with other divisions (abroad, if needed)
- make arrest
- interrogate
In daytime arrest people discreetly - don’t inflame extra public irritation. There’s a general rule: more arrests - less crime prevention (after being in jail people, engage in more sophisticated and secret criminal activity). After mass arrests at certain places (buildings) repeat the action in a day or two.
- chasing the object, block the area into circles (follow the plan for a certain area) and try to "push" him to a certain place where your team is waiting
- taking the object in the street: look around for his partner(s), who could shoot you from behind
- be on the alert if anybody tries to talk to you in the street - it could be an attempt to divert your attention
- arresting a crew, shoot and disarm any people with guns first
- never hesitate to shoot terrorists - some of them have mental problems and won’t think a second before shooting you
- arrest a dangerous object while he’s relaxed (drugs, alcohol, sex, sleep) and don’t let him kill himself, eliminate evidences or warn his partners. (Most people feel more relaxed when traveling abroad.) To take the object alive, scream, shoot over his head, use smoke and light grenades.
- camouflage your team (as ambulance workers, construction workers, vendors, etc.)
- if there’s a crowd around the object, shoot in the air and order everybody to lie down— the object has no choice
- if the object is well armed and very dangerous (and you have intelligence information on that), you have to shoot him even in a very crowded area as you never know what he’s going to do next — take hostages, shoot people or blow up a bomb (three wounded people is a better score than three hundred dead).
Interrogation is a conversational process of information gathering. The intent of interrogation is to control an individual so that he will either willingly supply the requested information or, if someone is an unwilling participant in the process, to make the person submit to the demands for information.
Remember, people tend to:
-talk when they are under stress and respond to kindness and understanding.
-show deference when confronted by superior authority, This is culturally dependent, but in most areas of the world people are used to responding to questions from a variety of government and quasi-government officials.
-operate within a framework of personal and culturally derived values. People tend to respond positively to individuals who display the same value system and negatively when their core values are challenged.
-respond to physical and, more importantly, emotional self-interest.
-fail to apply or remember lessons they may have been taught regarding security if confronted with a disorganized or strange situation
-be more willing to discuss a topic about which the interrogator demonstrates identical or related experience or knowledge
-appreciate flattery and exoneration from guilt
a) "good cop / bad cop"
b)"story under a story" (after intense interrogation the object tells a different story — which is not true, either)
c) "bombing" with questions
d) pressure by not interrogating
e) "silence makes your situation worse" trick
f) "admit one small episode and that’s it" trick
g) "I help you — you help me" trick
h) "shift" – try to shift the blame away from the suspect to some other person or set of circumstances that prompted the subject to commit the crime. That is, develop themes containing reasons that will justify or excuse the crime. Themes may be developed or changed to find one to which the accused is most responsive.
Methods to detect a "mole":
A. Use index cards (special file) — never use computers to save this information!
Prepare a file on each officer and mark there the signs of a "mole" — has or spends too much money, asks too many extra questions; uses professional skills to check for physical and technical surveillance; has discreet contacts with foreigners; discreet copying of top secret documents; attempts to get a job in most secret departments; talks with close friends and family members about the possibility of making money as a "mole"; behavior deviations — extra suspiciousness, excitement, depression, drugs or alcohol addiction. Three signs are enough to start an investigation — the "triangulation" principle.
B. Use provocation. If a prospective "mole" is looking for a contact with the enemy and is ready to betray, and you have exact information, organize such a "meeting" for him. Do not arrest the person right away — play along, as he may give you connections to other people who are ready to betray. There’s one more provocation method: you supply the suspects with "highly classified information" and just watch what they do.
C. Use "filter" or "narrowing the circle." Include all the officers you suspect in a "circle" and narrow it until one name is left as the most likely suspect.
D. Make a "model" of a "mole," judging by information you have on him.
E. Recruit an insider. Recruit a "mole" inside your enemy’s intelligence service and he’ll help you to find the one inside yours (it’s called "grabbing the other end of a thread").
F. Don’t trust anybody.
What to do if you’ve detected a "mole"
- assess the damage
- restrict his access to classified information and start "feeding" him with fake data
- stop all operations he was involved in and create the illusion they are still in progress
- bring home officers and agents who work abroad and had contacts with him and those to whose files he had access
- start 24/7 surveillance if you’ve decided to play the game and look into his contacts
- arrest the "mole" discreetly (if you want to continue the game)
Effective methods to prevent treason do not exist.
How to cover your "mole"
There are special methods to cover your own "mole" and a "switch" is the most effective — it’s when you "switch" counterintelligence to other, innocent persons who work with the "mole." You can try information "leaks" through a "double agent" — it looks like you receive top secret information through another traitor or by breaking the electronic security systems. Or you can try information "leak" through publications in big newspapers — it looks like information is not secret and is known to many people or there’s another "mole."
President′s protection (instruction for Secret Service)
The top priority in protecting the President’s life must be organized and complete intelligence. Any information from any person from any country concerning the President’s personal security has to be immediately analyzed, and immediate action has to be performed. This is the first priority for intelligence and counter-intelligence agencies and police as well as the Secret Service. If the system is organized properly, nobody could even get in a position to try to shoot. Of course, the safest thing is to restrict the President’s routes to government buildings only; but he has to travel and he has to travel abroad, too. Still, the President should leave his Office only when he really has to.
Since the President has to be let out from time to time, the newer technique is to restrict where the onlookers may congregate, especially those who wish to take the opportunity to express dismay with Presidential policies. Thus we now see the evolution of "free speech corners" so that demonstrators are confined to specific areas far from the actual event where the President is appearing or the route he is transiting.
Practical protection during presidential appearances
1. The Secret Service must have a top-secret plan of all visits, because the advance group has to come to the place at least a week ahead and cooperate with the field FBI offices and police (foreign special services if it’s a visit abroad) paying attention to extremist groups and organizations. Officers and technicians search the place, looking for possible explosives, radioactive, biological and chemical dangerous or poisonous stuff and weapons; they check the walls, floors and ceilings; check air and water in the area; install weapons and explosives detectors and stay at the place 24/7, using night vision devices, too. (Dogs are good helpers if there is any question of explosives.) You have to check nearby houses as well (there could be people with mental health problems or dangerous criminals. Remember, the President must not appear in open areas close to apartment buildings. And the President has to be able to reach the National Security Command Center at any time.
2. If the President has to make a speech in open area there should be at least 3 security circles around him:
- up to 50 ft (personal bodyguards, weapons and explosives technicians)
- up to 200 ft (fast reaction anti-terror group)
- up to 1000 ft (support groups, snipers, police)
The security system includes both "open" and undercover groups (obvious security and people who play the crowd or service — drivers, waiters, cleaners — terrorists don’t pay attention to them, as a rule). Each group follows its instructions strictly and avoids mess (personal bodyguards are in charge of immediate protection, anti-terror group has to fight and chase terrorists, etc.). Extra people always mean extra danger, so the most secure situation is when extra people have no access to the President at all and can’t get into any of three circles. The guest list has to be triple checked to exclude anybody with criminal records who could compromise the leader. Reporters are there too and you have to tell them exactly where to wait (they have to be checked and kept separate after that), where to stand and what pictures (poses) to take; the President can’t look stupid or funny. Inside the building watch when people applaud, stand up and sit down — terrorists prefer these situations to shoot or blow explosives.
When President moves through or along the crowd, "cut" it into pieces, guard him in circles, watch people who are carrying any objects (no flowers!) — they must not approach him; watch people with hands in their pockets, those who try to touch him, shake his hand, pass any object (gift, picture, photo). They must not be allowed to do that. If anybody behaves in a suspicious way, hold him tight (so he can’t take out a gun) and "screw" him out of the crowd. In case of any attempt push the President to the ground, cover him and shoot immediately. Then leave the place as soon as possible and bring him to the hospital for a check up (even if he’s OK).
The worst one – Secret Service and other agencies get inadequate intelligence information on a possible attempt or overlook important information, including anonymous letters and mail from psychos. (They must have information, even if it’s "inside" the White House conspiracy. Agents have to memorize pictures of all the most dangerous persons who are wanted in the United States and people who were involved in attempted attacks on top politicians worldwide.)
The next two — extraneous people are allowed access to the President or extraneous people stay in the area close enough to shoot the President. In 1997, a France Press reporter took a picture of the Clintons dancing during their vacation on the Virgin Islands — they were dressed for the Caribbean and were happy in their privacy. Luckily, it was just a reporter, but what if it had been a sniper? What was the Secret Service doing? Then the picture was published worldwide and Hillary Clinton was furious – she didn’t look attractive at all.
The last two major errors occur when (1) you can’t identify the potential terrorists in the crowd and (2) you react too slow or waste time evacuating the President.
Chapter 7. Military management
American President loves war, not peace, because:
a) Successful military engagement enhances presidential popularity. All five Presidents who have run for re-election during a war have won.
b) A quick war improves the electoral fortunes of the president’s political party.
c) War is good business, at least if you win, and at least if it does not drag on too long. It stimulates demand for a variety of manufactured goods and services (even if they are all destined to go down the drain) and is a powerful stimulus to all fields of scientific endeavor.
d) War provides opportunities to direct lucrative contracts to companies and individuals who helped get the President elected, or who can help in the future; and to the constituents of select Senators and Congressmen for the same reasons.
e) War usually pleases the Joint Chiefs (and their full support is important politically).
f) War keeps down the unemployment figures.
g) War is just one detail in a vast ongoing game of international strategy for domination; it is as much a financial operation as anything else.
h) War unifies the country, and keeps the public’s attention away from issues that might be controversial.
i) War provides a rationale for the implementation of tighter legislation and the removal of certain freedoms that would never be tolerated in peacetime America.
At the same time, war is limited by political decisions and by public opinion. Initially the use of US forces spurs a "rally around the flag" effect that lifts the President’s popularity and builds up support for the troops. But the American people are casualty averse and the positive effect lasts only until the number of casualties and the length of the engagement begin to wear on the public. Continued military action will then have a deleterious effect on presidential approval ratings as the war becomes increasingly unpopular.
In the long run, the destruction of such vast quantities of resources, and the diversion of so much of the nation’s productive capacity away from actual goods and services for the real economy, are obviously immensely deleterious. Eventually, these downside effects will begin to dawn on even the best-manipulated electorate.
"Golden" rules
1. Train your muscles to snap to the standard position for shooting, to squeeze the trigger straight back with the ball of your finger to avoid jerking the gun sideways.
Train yourself to shoot while you stand, sit, lie, walk, run, jump, fall down; shoot at voices, shoot in a dark room, different weather and distance, day and night; shoot one object and a group; use one gun, two guns, gun and submachine gun (some doctrines train a sniper to breathe deeply before shooting, then hold their lungs empty while he lines up and takes his shot; other go further, teaching a sniper to shoot between heartbeats to minimize barrel motion)
2. Camouflage yourself ten times before you make a single shot. Position yourself in a building (no rooftops or churches!), which offers a long-range fields of fire and all-round observation. Don’t stay in places with heavy traffic! Use unusual angles of approach and frequent slow movement to prevent accurate counter-attacks.
3. Move slowly to prevent accurate counter-attack, don’t be a mark yourself
4. Kill officers and military leaders first (Attention, officers: don’t walk in front of your soldiers!)
5. Use suppressive fire to cover a retreat
6. Use rapid fire when the squad attempts a rescue
7. Shoot helicopters, turbine disks of parked jet fighters, missile guidance packages, tubes or wave guides of radar sets
8. At distances over 300 m attempt body shots, aiming at the chest; at lesser distances attempt head shots (the most effective range is 300 to 600 meters). Police snipers who generally engage at much shorter distances may attempt head shots to ensure the kill (in instant-death hostage situations they shoot for the cerebellum, a part of the brain that controls voluntary movement that lies at the base of the skull).
9. Shoot from flanks and rear
10. Never approach the body until you shoot it several times
11. Careful: the object could be wearing a bulletproof vest
12. It’s important to get to the place, but it’s more important to get out alive
13. Remember, in hot weather bullets travel higher, in cold — lower; a silencer reduces the maximum effective range of the weapon. Wind poses the biggest problem — the stronger the wind, the more difficult it is to hold the rifle steady and gauge how it will affect the bullet’s trajectory. (You must be able to classify the wind and the best method is to use the clock system. With you at the center of the clock and the target at 12 o’clock, the wind is assigned into three values: full, half and no value. Full value means that the force of the wind will have a full effect on the flight of the bullet, and these winds come from 3 and 9 o’clock. Half value means that a wind at the same speed, but from 1, 2, 4, 5, 7, 8, 10 and 11 o’clock, will move the bullet only half as much as a full-value wind. No value means that a wind from 6 or 12 o’clock will have little or no effect on the flight of the bullet). Shooting uphill or downhill can require more adjustment due to the effects of gravity. For moving targets, the point of aim is in front of the target ( it’s called "Leading" the target, where the amount of lead depends on the speed and angle of the target’s movement. For this technique, holding over is the preferred method. Anticipating the behavior of the target is necessary to accurately place the shot).
14.NEVER fire from the edge of a wood line – you should fire from a position inside the wood line (in the shade of shadows).
15. DO NOT cause overhead movement of trees, bushes or tall grasses by rubbing against them; move very slowly.
16.Do not use trails, roads or footpaths, avoid built-up and populated areas and areas of heavy enemy guerrilla activity.
17. . If you work in terrain without any natural support, use your rucksack, sandbag, a forked stick, or you may build a field-expedient bipod or tripod. The most accurate position though is prone, with a sandbag supporting the stock, and the stock’s cheek-piece against the cheek.
18. The sniper has a tendency to watch the target instead of his aiming point.
Counter-sniper tactics
1. Active: direct observation by posts equipped with laser protective glasses and night vision devices; patrolling with military working dogs; calculating the trajectory; bullet triangulation; using decoys to lure a sniper; using another sniper; UAV (unmanned aerial vehicles); directing artillery or mortar fire onto suspected sniper positions, the use of smoke-screens; emplacing tripwire-operated munitions, mines, or other booby-traps near suspected sniper positions( you can improvise booby-traps by connecting trip-wires to fragmentation hand grenades, smoke grenades or flares. Even though these may not kill the sniper, they will reveal his location. Booby –traps devices should be placed close to likely sniper hides or along the probable routes used into and out of the sniper’s work area). If the squad is pinned down by sniper fire and still taking casualties, the order may be given to rush the sniper’s position. If the sniper is too far for a direct rush, a "rush to cover" can also be used. The squad may take casualties, but with many moving targets and a slow-firing rifle, the losses are usually small compared to holding position and being slowly picked off. If the sniper’s position is known, but direct retaliation is not possible, a pair of squads can move through concealment (cover) and drive the nipper toward the group containing the targets. This decreases the chances that the sniper will find a stealthy, quick escape route.
2. Passive: limited exposure of the personnel (use concealed routes, avoid plazas and intersections, stay away from doorways and windows, move along the side of the street and not down the center, move in the shadows, move dispersed, avoid lighted areas at night, move quickly across open areas, avoid wearing obvious badges of rank, adapt screens on windows, use armored vehicles); use Kevlar helmet and bulletproof vest.
Military tricks
1. Use rapid dominance: technology + speed + information domination.
2. Use artillery preparation. It is the artillery fire delivered before an attack to destroy, neutralize, or suppress the enemy’s defense and to disrupt communications and disorganize the enemy’s defense.
3. Use deception especially before the first strike (air strike + artillery). Deception plays a key part in offensive operations and has two objectives: the first objective is to weaken the local defense by drawing reserves to another part of the battlefield. This may be done by making a small force seem larger than it is. The second objective is to conceal the avenue of approach and timing of the main attack.
4. Imitate assault to make the enemy expose his positions and fire system.
5. Mines, mines, mines. There are four types of minefield : the tactical large-area minefield, usually laid by engineers, for tactical use on the battlefield(i.e. to canalize the enemy into killing areas); the protective minefield, the sort that you will plant in front of your position for defensive purposes; the nuisance minefield, designed to hamper and disrupt enemy movement ; and the dummy minefield – a wired off area suitably marked can be as effective as the real thing.
6. Don’t touch anything in the places the enemy just left - check for mines first. A minefield is a mortal surprise and you have to know how to breach and cross it: remove your helmet, rucksack, watch, belt, and anything else that may hinder movement or fall off, leave your rifle and equipment with another soldier in the team, get a wooden stick about 30 cm (12 in) long for a probe and sharpen one of the ends (do not use a metal probe), place the unsharpened end of the probe in the palm of one hand with your fingers extended and your thumb holding the probe, and probe every 5 cm (2 in) across a 1-meter area in front of you and push the probe gently into the ground at an angle less than 45 degrees, kneel (or lie down) and feel upward and forward with your free hand to find tripwires and pressure prongs before starting to probe, put enough pressure on the probe to sink it slowly into the ground and if the probe does not go into the ground, pick or chip the dirt away with the probe and remove it by hand, stop probing when a solid object is touched, remove enough dirt from around the object to find out what it is. If you found a mine, remove enough dirt around it to see what type of mine it is, mark it and report its exact location to your leader. Once a footpath has been probed and the mines marked, a security team should cross the minefield to secure the far side. After the far side is secure, the rest of the unit should cross.
7. Visual indicators. Pay attention to the following indicators : trip wires, signs of road repair (new fill or paving, road patches, ditching), dead animals, damaged vehicles, tracks that stop unexplainably, wires leading away from the side of the road (they may be firing wires that are partially buried), mounds of dirt, change of plants color,, pieces of wood or othr debris on a road. Remember, mined areas, like other obstacles are often covered by fire. Keep also in mind, that local civilians try to avoid certain (mined) areas.
8. Use phony minefields to simulate live minefields. For example, disturb the ground so that it appears that mines have been emplaced and mark boundaries with appropriate warnings.
9. Make a real minefield appear phony, or camouflage it. For example, once a real minefield is settled, a wheel or a specially made circular wooden tank track marker can be run through the field, leaving track or tire marks to lure the enemy onto live mines. Antipersonnel mines should not be sown in such a field until the track marks have been laid. Another method is to leave gaps in the mechanically laid field, run vehicles through the gaps, and then close them with hand-laid mines without disturbing the track marks.
10. Use feint attack to draw defensive action towards the point under assault (it’s usually used as a diversion and to force the enemy to concentrate more manpower in a given area so that the opposing force in another area is weaker).
11. Issue false orders over the radio, imitate a tanks’, fighters’ and bombers’ assault while preparing to retreat.
12. Use dummy units and installations, phony radio traffic, movement and suppressive fires in other areas timed to coincide with the real attack
13. Use force multiplication by using decoy vehicles and use small convoys to generate dust clouds. Move trucks into and out of the area giving it the appearance of being a storage facility or logistic base.
14. Simulate damage to induce the enemy to leave important targets alone. For example, ragged patterns can be painted on the walls and roof of a building with tar and coal dust, and covers placed over them.
15. Stack debris nearby and wire any unused portions for demolition. During an attack, covers are removed under cover of smoke generators, debris scattered and demolitions blown. Subsequent enemy air photography will disclose a building that is too badly damaged to be used.
16. Change positions at night time only.
17. Use dispersal to relocate and spread out forces to increase their chances of survival.
18. Imitate fake ballistic missiles divisions and military headquarters to entrap enemy’s intelligence and sabotage groups.
19. Use "sack" strategy ("cutting" enemy’s army into separate groups).
20. Use strategic bombing (the massive attack on cities, industries, lines of communication and supply).
21. Simulate bombing of minor objects and attack important ones.
22. Use counter-battery fire (detecting with counter-battery radars the source of incoming artillery shells and firing back), using mobile artillery pieces or vehicles with mounted rocket launchers to fire and then move before any counter-battery fire can land on the original position.
23. Use airborne operations, when helicopters transport troops into the battle and provide fire support at battle sites simultaneously with artillery fire, keeping enemy off guard.
24. Helicopters are extremely important as they can be sent everywhere: to kill tanks and other helicopters, for aerial mine laying, for electronic warfare, for naval operations (anti-submarine and anti-ship patrols), to correct artillery and tactical fighters fire, for reconnaissance, command, control and communications, to insert special forces, to evacuate casualties (this helps maintain the morale of the troops), to carry supplies (missile systems, ammunition, fuel food, to escort convoys, for navigational help, to destroy battlefield radars, communications and radio relay systems, to seal gaps and protect flanks, for rear-area security, counter — penetration, rapid reinforcement of troops under pressure, raids and assaults behind enemy lines, air assault in offensive and defensive operations, to strengthen anti-tank defenses by inserting infantry anti-tank teams. Helicopters offer a strong tactical surprise and take a ground conflict into the third dimension, making the enemy’s ground maneuvers impossible.
25. When fighting an insurgency: once you get intelligence, you have to bomb the area to "soften" insurgents and then send helicopters with special forces teams right away. Helicopters suppress and cut-off by fire insurgents trying to escape and the teams clear-up the remains. Transport helicopters must bring in troops rapidly from different bases and build-up numerically superior force which insurgents cannot match.
26. Use joint bombers/fighters flights to bomb transportation, supply, bridges, railroads, highways, antiaircraft and radar sites. To gain surprise , attack with the sun behind you. Remember, enemy will try to saturate the airspace through which the aircraft will fly with fire.
27. Watch out for the tank ambushes!
Storming the City
1. Effective intelligence is 90% of success. Use sources like agents among the enemy’s high ranking officers, prisoners of war, captured documents and maps, enemy’s activity, local civilians (agents). Use intelligence and sabotage groups (through them you can deliver your fake plans and maps). You must know how the enemy usually defends a built-up area and the approaches to it, critical objectives within the built-up area that provide decisive tactical advantages, tactical characteristics of the built-up area and its structure. Information about the population will assist in determining where to attack, what firepower restrictions may be imposed, and what areas within the urban complex must be avoided to minimize destruction of life-support facilities and civilian casualties.
2. Make the enemy attack you if possible, because if you attack first the victims calculation is 5:1.
3. Train your troops to storm this certain city.
4. Blockade the city completely.
5. Attack the city from different points ( flanks and rear !) at the same time after intense artillery fire and bombing (that’s a very strong psychological blow. Its intensity is determined by the strength of defensive forces, the type of building construction, and the density of fires required to suppress observation and fires. You must destroy command posts, heavy weapons positions, communications, troop emplacements, tall structures that permit observation. Then engineers move forward under the cover of smoke and high explosives to neutralize barriers and breach minefields on routes into the city). Field artillery, attack helicopters and offense air support must disrupt the enemy command and control network and destroy his support units ( field artillery mostly creates breaches in buildings, walls and barricades. Mortars cover avenues of enemy troop movements, such as street intersections and alleys; mortars firing positions are placed behind walls or inside buildings close to their targets). A hasty attack is conducted when the enemy has not established strong defensive positions and attacking forces can exploit maneuver to overwhelm the defense – locate a weak spot or gap in enemy defenses, fix forward enemy elements, rapidly move through or around the gap or weak spot to be exploited. A deliberate attack is necessary when enemy defenses are extremely prepared, when the urban obstacle is extremely large or severely congested., or when the advantage of surprise has been lost. It’s divided into three basic phases: isolation from reinforcement and resupply by securing dominating terrain and utilizing direct and indirect fires; assault to rupture the defenses and secure a foothold on the perimeter of the built-up area from which attacks to clear the area may be launched (an envelopment, assaulting defensive weaknesses on the flanks or rear of the built-up area, is preferred, however , a penetration may be required; and clearance , a systematic building-by-building, block-by-block advance through the entire area..
6. Target vital bridges, transportation facilities that are required to sustain future combat operations, strategic industrial or vital communications facilities. Attacks against built-up areas will be avoided when the area is not required to support future operations, bypassing is tactically feasible, the built-up area has been declared an "open city" to preclude civilian casualties or to preserve cultural or historical facilities, sufficient combat forces are not available to seize and clear the built-up area.
7. Don’t use tanks on narrow streets ! Tanks can be decisive in city fighting, with the ability to demolish walls and fire medium and heavy machine guns in several directions simultaneously. However, tanks are especially vulnerable in urban combat. It’s much easier for enemy infantry to sneak behind a tank or fire at its sides, where it is vulnerable. In addition, firing down from multi-story buildings allows shots at the soft upper turret armor and even basic weapons like Molotov cocktails, if aimed at the engine air intakes, can disable a tank.
8. Use 3 groups at each point.
1st. A "dead" group plus tanks moves fast to the center, again, after intense artillery fire and bombing (otherwise you’ll have heavy casualties).
2nd. The group follows the first one and inside the city goes like a "fan" in all directions enveloping the defender’s flanks and rear.
3rd. The group is on reserve in case the enemy counterattacks.
The first phase of the attack should be conducted when visibility is poor. Troops can exploit poor visibility to cross open areas, gain access to rooftops, infiltrate enemy areas and gain a foothold. If the attack must be made when visibility is good, units should consider using smoke to conceal movement. The formation used in attack depends on the width and depth of the zone to be cleared, the character of the area, anticipated enemy resistance, and the formation adopted by the next higher command. Lead companies may have engineers attached for immediate support. Tasks given to engineers may include preparing and using explosives to breach walls and obstacles, finding and exploding mines in place or helping remove them, clearing barricades and rubble, cratering roads.
9. Use paratroopers to capture important objects (airport, government buildings, military headquarters, port, railway station).
10. Capture high buildings and place machine gunners and snipers on upper floors (buildings provide excellent sniping posts for defenders, too).
11. Get all important cross-roads to maneuver troops and tanks.
12. Block highways!
13. Watch out - there are mines everywhere (alleys and rubble-filled streets are ideal for planting booby traps). Be alert for booby traps in doors, windows, halls, stairs, and concealed in furniture.
14. Watch underground communications - the enemy could stay in subway tunnels, sewage system.
15. Don’t waste time storming the buildings - blow up the walls and move forward.
16. Soldiers in an urban environment are faced with ground direct fire danger in three dimensions — not just all-round fire but also from above (multi-story buildings) and from below (sewers and subways) and that’s why, here, the most survivable systems, like tanks, are at great risk. Also, there are increased casualties because of shattered glass, falling debris, rubble, ricochets, urban fires and falls from heights. Stress-related casualties and non-battle injuries resulting from illnesses or environmental hazards, such as contaminated water, toxic industrial materials also increase the number of casualties.
17. In the streets use artillery and mortars to "soften" the enemy up before assault.

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© 17.08.2021г. Михаил Крыжановский
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